7-4-4. APPROACHES TO MULTIPLE RUNWAYS

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  • 7-4-4. APPROACHES TO MULTIPLE RUNWAYS

    interpretation 18
    1. All aircraft must be informed that approaches are being conducted to parallel, intersecting, or converging runways. This may be accomplished through use of the ATIS.
    2. When conducting visual approaches to multiple runways ensure the following:
      1. Do not permit the respective aircrafts’ primary radar targets to touch unless visual separation is being applied.
      2. When the aircraft flight paths intersect, ensure approved separation is maintained until visual separation is provided.
    3. In addition to the requirements in para 7-2-1, Visual Separation, para 7-4-1, Visual Approach, para 7-4-2, Vectors for Visual Approach, and para 7-4-3, Clearance for Visual Approach, the following conditions apply to visual approaches being conducted simultaneously to parallel, intersecting, and converging runways, as appropriate:
      1. Parallel runways separated by less than 2,500 feet. Unless approved separation is provided by ATC, an aircraft must report sighting a preceding aircraft making an approach (instrument or visual) to the adjacent parallel runway. When an aircraft reports another aircraft in sight on the adjacent final approach course and visual separation is applied, controllers must advise the succeeding aircraft to maintain visual separation. However, do not permit a super or heavy aircraft to overtake another aircraft. Do not permit a B757 or other large aircraft to overtake a small aircraft.
      2. Parallel runways separated by at least 2,500 feet, but less than 4,300 feet.
        1. (a) Approved separation is provided until the aircraft are:
          1. (1) Established on a heading or established on a direct course to a fix or cleared on an RNAV/instrument approach procedure which will intercept the extended centerline of the runway at an angle not greater than 30 degrees, and,
          2. (2) Issued an approach clearance and one pilot has acknowledged receipt of a visual approach clearance, and,
          3. (3) The other pilot has acknowledged receipt of a visual or instrument approach clearance.
          • NOTE:
          • 1. The intent of the 30 degree intercept angle is to reduce the potential for overshoots of the extended centerline of the runway and preclude side-by-side operations with one or both aircraft in a “belly-up” configuration during the turn. Aircraft performance, speed, and the number of degrees of the turn are factors to be considered when vectoring aircraft to parallel runways.
          • 2. Variances between heading assigned to intercept the extended centerline of the runway and aircraft ground track are expected due to the effect of wind and course corrections after completion of the turn and pilot acknowledgment of a visual approach clearance.
          • 3. Procedures using Radius-to-Fix legs that intercept final may be used in lieu of 30-degree intercept provisions contained in this paragraph.
          • REFERENCE
          • FAA Publication, Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, Chapter 15 “Effect of Wind.”
        2. (b) Visual approaches may be conducted to one runway while visual or instrument approaches are conducted simultaneously to other runways, provided the conditions of subpara (a) are met.
        3. (c) Provided aircraft flight paths do not intersect, and when the provisions of subparas (a) and (b) are met, it is not necessary to apply any other type of separation with aircraft on the adjacent final approach course.
      3. Parallel runways separated by 4,300 feet or more.
        1. (a) When aircraft flight paths do not intersect, visual approaches may be conducted simultaneously, provided approved separation is maintained until one of the aircraft has been issued and the pilot has acknowledged receipt of the visual approach clearance.
        2. (b) Visual approaches may be conducted to one runway while visual or instrument approaches are conducted simultaneously to other runways, provided the conditions of subpara (a) are met.
        3. (c) Provided the aircraft flight paths do not intersect, when the provisions of subparas (a) and (b) are met, it is not necessary to apply any other type of separation with aircraft on the adjacent final approach course.
        4. (d) Each aircraft must either be assigned a heading or established on a direct course to a fix or cleared on an RNAV/instrument approach procedure which will allow the aircraft to intercept the extended centerline of the runway at an angle not greater than 30 degrees.
        • NOTE:
        • 1. The intent of the 30 degree intercept angle is to reduce the potential for overshoots of the extended centerline of the runway and preclude side-by-side operations with one or both aircraft in a “belly-up” configuration during the turn. Aircraft performance, speed, and the number of degrees of the turn are factors to be considered when vectoring aircraft to parallel runways.
        • 2. Variances between heading assigned to intercept the extended centerline of the runway and aircraft ground track are expected due to the effect of wind and course corrections after completion of the turn and pilot acknowledgment of a visual approach clearance.
        • 3. Procedures using Radius-to-Fix legs that intercept final may be used in lieu of 30-degree intercept provisions contained in this paragraph.
        • REFERENCE
        • FAA Publication, Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, Chapter 15 “Effect of Wind.”
      4. Intersecting and converging runways. Visual approaches may be conducted simultaneously with visual or instrument approaches to other runways, provided:
        1. (a) Approved separation is maintained until the aircraft conducting the visual approach has been issued, and the pilot has acknowledged receipt of, the visual approach clearance.
        2. (b) When aircraft flight paths intersect, approved separation must be maintained until visual separation is provided.

        NOTE: Although simultaneous approaches may be conducted to intersecting runways, staggered approaches may be necessary to meet the airport separation requirements specified in Para 3-10-4, Intersecting Runway/Intersecting Flight Path Separation.

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