3-7-2. TAXI AND GROUND MOVEMENT OPERATIONS

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  • 3-7-2. TAXI AND GROUND MOVEMENT OPERATIONS

    interpretation 6

    Issue the route for the aircraft/vehicle to follow on the movement area in concise and easy to understand terms. The taxi clearance route must include the specific route to follow. When a taxi clearance to a runway is issued to an aircraft, confirm the aircraft has the correct runway assignment.

    • NOTE:
    • 1. A pilot’s read back of taxi instructions with the runway assignment can be considered confirmation of runway assignment.
    • 2. Movement of aircraft or vehicles on nonmovement areas is the responsibility of the pilot, the aircraft operator, or the airport management.
    1. When authorizing an aircraft to taxi or a vehicle to proceed on the movement area, specify the taxi instructions/route. If it is the intent to hold the aircraft/vehicle short of:
      1. A runway: issue the route up to the runway hold short point. When issuing a runway crossing clearance, include specific instructions on where to cross the runway;
      2. Any other point along the route, issue:
        1. (a) the route up to the hold short point, or
        2. (b) the entire route and then state the hold short instructions.

      After issuing a crossing clearance, specify the taxi instructions/route an aircraft/vehicle is to follow, if not previously issued.

      NOTE: The absence of holding instructions authorizes an aircraft/vehicle to cross all taxiways that intersect the taxi route.

      • PHRASEOLOGY
      • HOLD POSITION.
      • HOLD FOR (reason)
      • CROSS (runway), at (runway/taxiway)
      • or
      • TAXI/CONTINUE TAXIING/PROCEED/VIA (route),
      • or
      • ON (runway number or taxiways, etc.),
      • or
      • TO (location),
      • or
      • (direction),
      • or
      • ACROSS RUNWAY (number), at (runway/taxiway).
      • or
      • VIA (route), HOLD SHORT OF (location)
      • or
      • FOLLOW (traffic) (restrictions as necessary)
      • or
      • BEHIND (traffic).
      • EXAMPLE
      • “Cross Runway Two Eight Left, at taxiway Alpha, hold short of Runway Two Eight Right.”
      • “Taxi/continue taxiing/proceed to the hangar.”
      • “Taxi/continue taxiing/proceed straight ahead then via ramp to the hangar.”
      • “Taxi/continue taxiing/proceed on Taxiway Charlie, hold short of Runway Two-Seven.”
      • or
      • “Taxi/continue taxing/proceed on Charlie, hold short of Runway Two-Seven.”
    2. When authorizing an aircraft to taxi to an assigned takeoff runway, state the departure runway followed by the specific taxi route. Issue hold short instructions, in accordance with paragraph a above, when an aircraft will be required to hold short of a runway or other points along the taxi route.

      NOTE: If the specific taxi route ends into a connecting taxiway with the same identifier (for example, taxiway “A” connects with Taxiway “A1”) at the approach end of the runway, the connecting taxiway may be omitted from the clearance.

      • PHRASEOLOGY
      • RUNWAY (number), TAXI VIA (route as necessary). or
      • RUNWAY (number), TAXI VIA (route as necessary) (hold short instructions as necessary).”
      • EXAMPLE
      • “Runway Three-Six Left, taxi via taxiway Alpha, hold short of taxiway Charlie.”
      • or
      • “Runway Three-Six Left, taxi via Alpha, hold short of Charlie.”
      • or
      • “Runway Three-Six Left, taxi via taxiway Alpha, hold short of Runway Two-Seven Right.”
      • or
      • “Runway Three-Six Left, taxi via Charlie, cross Runway Two-Seven Left, hold short of Runway Two-Seven Right.”
      • or
      • “Runway Three-Six Left, taxi via Alpha, Charlie, cross Runway One-Zero.”
    3. Issue a crossing clearance to aircraft for each runway their route crosses. An aircraft must have crossed a previous runway before another runway crossing clearance may be issued. At those airports where the taxi distance between runway centerlines is 1,300 feet or less, multiple runway crossings may be issued with a single clearance. The air traffic manager must submit a request to the appropriate Service Area Director of Air Traffic Operations and receive approval before authorizing multiple runway crossings.

      NOTE: Controllers should avoid crossing points that are not perpendicular or nearly perpendicular to the runway to be crossed, (for example, reverse high speed taxiways).

      • PHRASEOLOGY
      • “Cross (runway) at( runway/taxiway), hold short of (runway)”, or
      • “Cross (runways) at (runway/taxiway).”
      • EXAMPLE
      • “Cross Runway One Six Left at Taxiway Bravo, hold short of Runway One Six Right.”
      • “Cross Runway One Six Left and Runway One Six Right at Taxiway Bravo.”
      • REFERENCE
      • FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-3-11 Multiple Runway Crossings.
    4. When an aircraft/vehicle is instructed to “follow” traffic and requires a runway crossing, issue a runway crossing clearance in addition to the follow instructions and/or hold short instructions, as applicable.
      • EXAMPLE
      • “Follow (traffic), cross Runway Two Seven Right, at Taxiway Whiskey”
      • or
      • “Follow (traffic), cross Runway Two Seven Right at Taxiway Whiskey, hold short of Runway Two Seven Left.”
    5. Issue a crossing clearance to vehicles for each runway their route crosses. A vehicle must have crossed a previous runway before another runway crossing clearance may be issued.

      NOTE: A clearance is required for vehicles to operate on any active, inactive, or closed runway except for vehicles operating on closed runways in accordance with a Letter of Agreement (LOA).

    6. Vehicles that have been issued a clearance onto a runway to conduct runway operations are authorized to cross intersecting runways, unless otherwise restricted. Issue hold short instructions as needed.

      NOTE: Vehicles should not normally use runways as transition routes to other parts of the airfield. These movements are not considered runway operations and the use of alternative routes is preferred.

    7. Crossing of active runway(s) by aircraft/vehicle(s):
      1. During departure operations, ensure that aircraft/vehicles intending to cross a runway do not cross the runway holding position markings until the controller visually observes the departure aircraft in a turn, or the departure aircraft has passed the point where the crossing aircraft/vehicle is located, regardless of altitude, unless authorized in FAA Order JO 7110.65, Para. 3-10-10, Altitude Restricted Low Approach.
      2. During arrival operations, ensure the following:
        1. (a) An aircraft/vehicle has completed crossing prior to the arriving aircraft crossing the landing threshold, or
        2. (b) A crossing aircraft/vehicle will not cross the runway holding position markings until the arrival has landed and either:
          1. (1) The controller has confirmed by verbal commitment from the pilot that the arriving aircraft will exit the runway prior to the point at which the crossing is intended, or
          2. (2) The controller visually observes the aircraft exiting the runway prior to the point at which the crossing is intended, or
          3. (3) The arriving aircraft has passed the point at which the crossing is intended.
    8. Request a read back of runway hold short instructions when it is not received from the pilot/vehicle operator.
      • PHRASEOLOGY
      • READ BACK HOLD INSTRUCTIONS.
      • EXAMPLE
      • 1. “American Four Ninety Two, Runway Three Six Left, taxi via taxiway Charlie, hold short of Runway Two Seven Right.”

        or

        “American Four Ninety Two, Runway Three Six Left, taxi via Charlie, hold short of Runway Two Seven Right.”

        “American Four Ninety Two, Roger.”

        “American Four Ninety Two, read back hold instructions.”

      • 2. “Cleveland Tower, American Sixty Three is ready for departure.”

        “American Sixty Three, hold short of Runway Two Three Left, traffic one mile final.”

        “American Sixty Three, Roger.”

        “American Sixty Three, read back hold instructions.”

      • 3. “OPS Three proceed via taxiway Charlie hold short of Runway Two Seven.”

        or

        “OPS Three proceed via Charlie hold short of Runway Two Seven.”

        “OPS Three, Roger.”

        “OPS Three, read back hold instructions.”

      NOTE: Read back hold instructions phraseology may be initiated for any point on a movement area when the controller believes the read back is necessary.

    9. Issue progressive taxi/ground movement instructions when:
      1. A pilot/operator requests.
      2. The specialist deems it necessary due to traffic or field conditions, e.g., construction or closed taxiways.
      3. Necessary during reduced visibility, especially when the taxi route is not visible from the tower.

      NOTE: Progressive instructions may include step by step directions and/or directional turns.

    10. Issue instructions to expedite a taxiing aircraft or a moving vehicle.
      • PHRASEOLOGY
      • TAXI WITHOUT DELAY (traffic if necessary).
      • EXIT/PROCEED/CROSS (runway/taxiway) at (runway/taxiway) WITHOUT DELAY.
    11. Issue instructions to aircraft/vehicle to hold short of an approach/departure hold area when required.
      • PHRASEOLOGY
      • HOLD SHORT OF (runway) APPROACH
      • HOLD SHORT OF (runway) DEPARTURE
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