5-9-7. SIMULTANEOUS INDEPENDENT APPROACHES - DUAL & TRIPLE

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  • 5-9-7. SIMULTANEOUS INDEPENDENT APPROACHES - DUAL & TRIPLE

    TERMINAL

    1. Apply the following minimum separation when conducting simultaneous independent approaches:
      1. Provide a minimum of 1,000 feet vertical or a minimum of 3 miles radar separation between aircraft:
        1. (a) during turn-on to parallel final approach,
        2. or,
        3. (b) until aircraft are established on a published segment of an approach authorized for Established on RNP (EoR) operations.

        NOTE: Aircraft are considered EoR on an initial or intermediate segment of an instrument approach authorized for EoR operations after the approach clearance has been issued, read back by the pilot and the aircraft is observed on the published procedure (lateral and vertical path, and within any procedure specified speed restriction), and is conducting a simultaneous independent parallel approach with an authorized simultaneous instrument approach to a parallel runway.

      2. Dual parallel runway centerlines are at least 3,600 feet apart, or dual parallel runway centerlines are at least 3,000 feet apart with a 2.5° to 3.0° offset approach to either runway.
      3. Triple parallel approaches may be conducted when:
        1. (a) Parallel runway centerlines are at least 3,900 feet apart; or
        2. (b) Parallel runway centerlines are at least 3,000 feet apart, a 2.5° to 3.0° offset approach to both outside runways; or
        3. (c) Parallel runway centerlines are at least 3,000 feet apart, a single 2.5° to 3.0° offset approach to either outside runway while parallel approaches to the remaining two runways are separated by at least 3,900 feet.
        4. (d) Parallel approaches to airports where the airport field elevation is more than 2,000 feet MSL require the use of the final monitor aid (FMA) system.
      4. Provide the minimum applicable radar separation between aircraft on the same final approach course.

        Except when conducting an EoR operation, no two aircraft will be assigned the same altitude during turn-on to final. All three aircraft will be assigned altitudes which differ by a minimum of 1,000 feet. Example: 3,000, 4,000, 5,000; 7,000, 8,000, 9,000.

    2. At locations with high update rate surveillance, simultaneous independent approaches may be conducted where the surveillance update rate is 1 second or faster, the system processing time is 3 seconds or faster, and under the following conditions:
      1. Dual parallel runway centerlines are at least 3,200 feet apart, or dual parallel runway centerlines are at least 2,500 feet apart with a 2.5° to 3.0° offset approach to either runway.
      2. Triple parallel runway centerlines are at least 3,400 feet apart, or triple parallel runway centerlines are at least 2,500 feet apart with a 2.5° to 3.0° offset approach to both outside runways, or triple parallel runway centerlines are at least 2,500 feet apart, a single 2.5° to 3.0° offset approach to either outside runway while parallel approaches to the remaining two runways are separated by at least 3,400 feet.

        NOTE: Aircraft without functioning ADS-B Out are restricted from utilizing these high update rate (HUR) procedures unless an alternative HUR surveillance source providing one-second or faster target report updating is utilized.

      3. A surveillance update rate of at least 1 second is required for monitoring the no transgression zone (NTZ) when conducting simultaneous independent approaches to the runway centerline spacing (RCLS) provided in this paragraph.
        • NOTE:
        • 1. HUR procedures cannot be conducted if notified that a one second update rate is not being provided.
        • 2. Where RCLS is ≤3400 feet, the normal operating zone (NOZ) is constant at 700 feet; and for RCLS ≥3400 feet, the no transgression zone (NTZ) remains constant at 2000 feet.
      4. Provide the minimum applicable radar separation between aircraft on the same final approach course.
    3. A color digital display set to a 4 to 1 (4:1) aspect ratio (AR) with visual and aural alerts, such as the STARS final monitor aid (FMA), and a surveillance update rate at 4.8 seconds or faster must be used to monitor approaches where:
      1. Dual parallel runway centerlines are at least 3,000 and less than 4,300 feet apart.
      2. Triple parallel runway centerlines are at least 3,000 but less than 5,000 feet apart.
      3. Triple parallel approaches to airports where the airport field elevation is more than 2,000 feet MSL require use of the FMA system.

        NOTE: At locations where the airfield elevation is 2000 feet or less, FMA is not required to monitor the NTZ for runway centerlines 4,300 feet or greater for dual runways, and 5,000 feet or greater for triple operations.

    4. The following conditions must be met when conducting dual or triple simultaneous independent approaches:

      NOTE: Simultaneous independent approaches may only be conducted where instrument approach charts specifically authorize simultaneous approaches.

      • REFERENCE
      • FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-4-6, Simultaneous Approaches (Dependent/Independent).
      1. Straight-in landings will be made.
      2. All appropriate communication, navigation, and surveillance systems are operating normally.
      3. Inform aircraft that simultaneous independent approaches are in use, or when runway centerlines are less than 4,300 feet, PRM approaches are in use, prior to aircraft departing an outer fix. This information may be provided through the ATIS.
      4. Clear the aircraft to descend to the appropriate glideslope/glidepath intercept altitude soon enough to provide a period of level flight to dissipate excess speed. Provide at least 1 mile of straight flight prior to the final approach course intercept.

        NOTE: Not applicable to approaches with RF legs.

      5. An NTZ is established an equal distance between extended runway final approach courses and must be depicted on the monitor display. The primary responsibility for navigation on the final approach course rests with the pilot. Control instructions and information are issued only to ensure separation between aircraft and to prevent aircraft from penetrating the NTZ.

        NOTE: Where RCLS is ≤3400 feet, the normal operating zone (NOZ) is constant at 700 feet; and for RCLS ≥3400 feet, the no transgression zone (NTZ) remains constant at 2000 feet.

      6. Monitor all approaches regardless of weather. Monitor local control frequency to receive any aircraft transmission. Issue control instructions as necessary to ensure aircraft do not enter the NTZ.
        • NOTE:
        • 1. Separate monitor controllers, each with transmit/receive and override capability on the local control frequency, must ensure aircraft do not penetrate the depicted NTZ. For PRM approaches, a transmit-only secondary “PRM frequency” is also used. Facility directives must define responsibility for providing the minimum applicable longitudinal separation between aircraft on the same final approach course.
        • 2. The aircraft is considered the center of the primary radar return for that aircraft, or, if an FMA or other color final monitor aid is used, the center of the digitized target of that aircraft, for the purposes of ensuring an aircraft does not penetrate the NTZ. The provisions of para 5-5-2, Target Separation, apply also.
      7. Communications transfer to the tower controller's frequency must be completed prior to losing 1,000 feet vertical or 3 miles radar separation between aircraft.
    5. The following procedures must be used by the final monitor controllers:
      1. For PRM approaches, provide position information to an aircraft that is left/right of the depicted final approach course centerline, and in your judgment is continuing on a track that may penetrate the NTZ.
        • PHRASEOLOGY
        • (Aircraft call sign) I SHOW YOU (left/right) OF THE FINAL APPROACH COURSE.
      2. Instruct the aircraft to return to the correct final approach course when aircraft are observed to overshoot the turn-on or to continue on a track which will penetrate the NTZ.
        • PHRASEOLOGY
        • YOU HAVE CROSSED THE FINAL APPROACH COURSE. TURN (left/right) IMMEDIATELY AND RETURN TO THE FINAL APPROACH COURSE,
        • or
        • TURN (left/right) AND RETURN TO THE FINAL APPROACH COURSE.
      3. Instruct aircraft on the adjacent final approach course to alter course to avoid the deviating aircraft when an aircraft is observed penetrating or in your judgment will penetrate the NTZ.

        NOTE: For PRM approaches, an instruction that may include a descent to avoid the deviating aircraft should only be used when there is no other reasonable option available to the controller. In such a case, the descent must not put the aircraft below the MVA.

        • PHRASEOLOGY
        • TRAFFIC ALERT, (call sign), TURN (right/left) IMMEDIATELY HEADING (degrees), CLIMB AND MAINTAIN (altitude).
      4. Terminate radar monitoring when one of the following occurs:
        1. (a) Visual separation is applied.
        2. (b) The aircraft reports the approach lights or runway in sight.
        3. (c) The aircraft is 1 mile or less from the runway threshold, if procedurally required and contained in facility directives.
      5. Do not inform the aircraft when radar monitoring is terminated.
    6. Consideration should be given to known factors that may in any way affect the safety of the instrument approach phase of flight when simultaneous independent approaches, or PRM approaches, if applicable, are being conducted to parallel runways. Factors include, but are not limited to, wind direction/velocity, windshear alerts/reports, severe weather activity, etc. Closely monitor weather activity that could impact the final approach course. Weather conditions in the vicinity of the final approach course may dictate a change of approach in use.
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