8-4-4. TRACK SEPARATION

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  • 8-4-4. TRACK SEPARATION

    Apply track separation between aircraft by requiring aircraft to fly specified tracks or radials and with specified spacings as follows:

    1. Same NAVAID:
      1. VOR/VORTAC/TACAN. Consider separation to exist between aircraft established on radials of the same NAVAID that diverge by at least 15 degrees when either aircraft is clear of the airspace to be protected for the other aircraft. Use TBL 8-4-1 to determine the flight distance required for various divergence angles and altitudes to clear the airspace to be protected. (See FIG 8-4-10.)
        TBL 8-4-1 Divergence-Distance Minima VOR/VORTAC/TACAN
        Divergence (degrees) Distance (mile)
        FL 230 and below Fl 240 through FL 450
        15-25 17 18
        26-35 11 13
        36-90 8 11
        Note This table compensates for DME slant range error.
        FIG 8-4-10 Track Separation VOR
        FIG 8-4-10 Track Separation VOR
      2. NDB:
        1. (a) Consider separation to exist between aircraft established on tracks of the same NAVAID that diverge by at least 30 degrees and one aircraft is at least 15 miles from the NAVAID. This separation must not be used when one or both aircraft are inbound to the aid unless the distance of the aircraft from the facility can be readily determined by reference to the NAVAID. Use TBL8-4-2 to determine the flight distance required for various divergence angles to clear the airspace to be protected. For divergence that falls between two values, use the lesser value to obtain the distance. (See FIG 8-4-11.)
          TBL 8-4-2 Divergence-Distance Minima (NDB)
          Divergence (degrees) Distance (mile)
          FL 230 and below Fl 240 through FL 450
          30 15 17
          45 13 14
          60 9 10
          75 7 8
          90 6 7
          Note This table compensates for DME slant range error.
          FIG 8-4-11 Track Separation NDB
          FIG 8-4-11 Track Separation NDB
        2. (b) Clear aircraft navigating on NDB facilities in accordance with para 2-5-2, NAVAID Terms.
    2. Different NAVAIDs: Separate aircraft using different navigation aids by assigning tracks so that their protected airspace does not overlap. (See FIG 8-4-12.)
      FIG 8-4-12 Track Separation Different NAVAIDs
      FIG 8-4-12 Track Separation Different NAVAIDs
    3. Dead Reckoning (DR):
      1. Consider separation to exist between aircraft established on tracks that diverge by at least 45 degrees when one aircraft is at least 15 miles from the point of intersection of the tracks. This point may be determined either visually or by reference to a ground-based navigation aid. (See FIG 8-4-13.)
        FIG 8-4-13 Track Separation Dead Reckoning
        FIG 8-4-13 Track Separation Dead Reckoning
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