Section 8. Spacing and Sequencing

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  • Section 8. Spacing and Sequencing

    3-8-1. SEQUENCE/SPACING APPLICATION

    Establish the sequence of arriving and departing aircraft by requiring them to adjust flight or ground operation, as necessary, to achieve proper spacing.

    • PHRASEOLOGY
    • CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.
    • CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF OR HOLD SHORT/HOLD IN POSITION/TAXI OFF THE RUNWAY (traffic).
    • EXTEND DOWNWIND.
    • MAKE SHORT APPROACH.
    • NUMBER (landing sequence number), FOLLOW (description and location of traffic),
    • or if traffic is utilizing another runway,
    • TRAFFIC (description and location) LANDING RUNWAY (number of runway being used).
    • TRAFFIC (description and location) LANDING THE PARALLEL RUNWAY
    • CIRCLE THE AIRPORT.
    • MAKE LEFT/RIGHT THREE-SIXTY/TWO SEVENTY.
    • GO AROUND (additional instructions as necessary).
    • CLEARED TO LAND.
    • CLEARED:
      • TOUCH-AND-GO, or
      • STOP-AND-GO, or
      • LOW APPROACH.
    • CLEARED FOR THE OPTION, or
    • OPTION APPROVED, or
    • UNABLE OPTION, (alternate instructions). or
    • UNABLE (type of option), OTHER OPTIONS APPROVED.
    • NOTE:
    • 1. The “Cleared for the Option” procedure will permit an instructor pilot/flight examiner/pilot the option to make a touch-and-go, low approach, missed approach, stop-and-go, or full stop landing. This procedure will only be used at those locations with an operational control tower and will be subject to ATC approval. After ATC approval of the option, the pilot should inform ATC as soon as possible of any delay on the runway during their stop-and-go or full stop landing.
    • 2. For proper helicopter spacing, speed adjustments may be more practical than course changes.
    • 3. Read back of hold short instructions apply when hold instructions are issued to a pilot in lieu of a takeoff clearance.

    3-8-2. TOUCH-AND-GO OR STOP-AND-GO OR LOW APPROACH

    Consider an aircraft cleared for touch-and-go, stop-and-go, or low approach as an arriving aircraft until it touches down (for touch-and-go), or makes a complete stop (for stop-and-go), or crosses the landing threshold (for low approach), and thereafter as a departing aircraft.

    3-8-3. SIMULTANEOUS SAME DIRECTION OPERATION

    Authorize simultaneous, same direction operations on parallel runways, on parallel landing strips, or on a runway and a parallel landing strip only when the following conditions are met:

    1. Operations are conducted in VFR conditions unless visual separation is applied.
    2. Two-way radio communication is maintained with the aircraft involved and pertinent traffic information is issued.
    3. The distance between the parallel runways or landing strips is in accordance with those specified in TBL 3-8-1.
    TBL 3-8-1 Same Direction Distance Minima
    Aircraft category Minimum distance (feet) between parallel
    Runway centerlines Edges of adjacent strips or runway and strip
    Category I or Category II 300 200
    If either aircraft is a Category III 500 400
    If either aircraft is a Heavy 700 600
    • NOTE:
    • 1. Aircraft Categories specified in Table 3-8-1 are Same Runway Separation (SRS) categories as indicated in Paragraph 3-9-6, Same Runway Separation.
    • 2. When conducting Simultaneous Same Direction Operations (SSDO), applicable Wake Turbulence provisions apply.

    3-8-4. SIMULTANEOUS OPPOSITE DIRECTION OPERATION

    Authorize simultaneous opposite direction operations on parallel runways, on parallel landing strips, or on a runway and a parallel landing strip only when the following conditions are met:

    1. Operations are conducted in VFR conditions.
    2. Two-way radio communication is maintained with the aircraft involved and pertinent traffic information is issued.
      • PHRASEOLOGY
      • TRAFFIC (description) ARRIVING/DEPARTING/LOW APPROACH, OPPOSITE DIRECTION ON PARALLEL RUNWAY/LANDING STRIP.
    3. The distance between the runways or landing strips is in accordance with the minima in TBL 3-8-2.
    TBL 3-8-2 Opposite Direction Distance Minima
    Type of Operation Minimum distance (feet) between parallel
    Runway centerlines Edges of adjacent strips or runway and strip
    Between sunrise and sunset 1400 1400
    Between sunset and sunrise 2800 Not Authorized
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