5-7-2. METHODS

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  • 5-7-2. METHODS

    1. Instruct aircraft to:
      1. Maintain present/specific speed.
      2. Maintain specified speed or greater/less.
      3. Maintain the highest/lowest practical speed.
      4. Increase or reduce to a specified speed or by a specified number of knots.
      • PHRASEOLOGY
      • SAY AIRSPEED.
      • SAY MACH NUMBER.
      • MAINTAIN PRESENT SPEED.
      • MAINTAIN (specific speed) KNOTS.
      • MAINTAIN (specific speed) KNOTS OR GREATER.
      • DO NOT EXCEED (speed) KNOTS.
      • MAINTAIN MAXIMUM FORWARD SPEED.
      • MAINTAIN SLOWEST PRACTICAL SPEED.
      • INCREASE/REDUCE SPEED:
      • TO (specified speed in knots),
      • or
      • TO MACH (Mach number),
      • or
      • (number of knots) KNOTS.
      • EXAMPLE
      • “Increase speed to Mach point seven two.”
      • “Reduce speed to two five zero.”
      • “Reduce speed twenty knots.”
      • “Maintain two eight zero knots.”
      • “Maintain maximum forward speed.”
      • NOTE:
      • 1. A pilot operating at or above 10,000 feet MSL on an assigned speed adjustment greater than 250 knots is expected to comply with 14 CFR Section 91.117(a) when cleared below 10,000 feet MSL, within domestic airspace, without notifying ATC. Pilots are expected to comply with the other provisions of 14 CFR Section 91.117 without notification.
      • 2. Speed restrictions of 250 knots do not apply to aircraft operating beyond 12 NM from the coastline within the U.S. Flight Information Region, in offshore Class E airspace below 10,000 feet MSL. However, in airspace underlying a Class B airspace area designated for an airport, or in a VFR corridor designated through such a Class B airspace area, pilots are expected to comply with the 200 knot speed limit specified in 14 CFR Section 91.117(c). (See 14 CFR Sections 91.117(c) and 91.703.)
      • 3. The phrases “maintain maximum forward speed” and “maintain slowest practical speed” are primarily intended for use when sequencing a group of aircraft. As the sequencing plan develops, it may be necessary to determine the specific speed and/or make specific speed assignments.
    2. To obtain pilot concurrence for a speed adjustment at or above FL 390, as required by para 5-7-1, Application, use the phraseology.
      • PHRASEOLOGY
      • (Speed adjustment), IF UNABLE ADVISE.
      • EXAMPLE
      • “Reduce speed to one niner zero, if unable advise.”
    3. Simultaneous speed reduction and descent can be extremely difficult, particularly for turbojet aircraft. Specifying which action is to be accomplished first removes any doubt the pilot may have as to controller intent or priority. Specify which action is expected first when combining speed reduction with a descent clearance.
      1. Speed reductions prior to descent.
        • PHRASEOLOGY
        • REDUCE SPEED:
        • TO (specified speed),
        • or
        • (number of knots) KNOTS.
        • THEN, DESCEND AND MAINTAIN (altitude).
      2. Speed reduction following descent.
        • PHRASEOLOGY
        • DESCEND AND MAINTAIN (altitude).
        • THEN, REDUCE SPEED:
        • TO (specified speed in knots),
        • or
        • TO MACH (Mach number),
        • or
        • (number of knots) KNOTS.

      NOTE: When specifying descent prior to speed reduction, consider the maximum speed requirements specified in 14 CFR Section 91.117. It may be necessary for the pilot to level off temporarily and reduce speed prior to descending below 10,000 feet MSL.

    4. Specify combined speed/altitude fix crossing restrictions.
      • PHRASEOLOGY
      • CROSS (fix) AT AND MAINTAIN (altitude) AT (specified speed) KNOTS.
      • EXAMPLE
      • “Cross Robinsville at and maintain six thousand at two three zero knots.”
    5. When issuing speed adjustments to aircraft cleared on procedures with published speed restrictions specify the point at which the issued restriction begins, ends, or changes the published restrictions.
      • PHRASEOLOGY
      • CROSS (fix/waypoint) AT (speed).
      • MAINTAIN (speed) UNTIL (fix/waypoint),
      • THEN (additional instructions).
      • RESUME PUBLISHED SPEED.
      • COMPLY WITH SPEED RESTRICTIONS.
      • EXCEPT (if required)
      • DELETE SPEED RESTRICTIONS.
      • CLIMB/DESCEND VIA (SID/STAR name and number) (transition if required.)
      • NOTE:
      • 1. Aircraft will meet all published speed restrictions when on any route or procedure with published speed restrictions regardless of climb via or descend via clearance.
      • 2. Due to variations of aircraft types, Flight Management Systems, and environmental conditions, ATC should anticipate that aircraft will begin speed adjustments at varying locations along cleared routes or procedures that contain published speed restrictions.
      • 3. Issuing speed adjustments to aircraft flying procedures with published speed restrictions may impact the pilot’s ability to fly the intended flight profile of the procedure.
      • EXAMPLE
      • 1. “Cross Alisa at two two zero knots, then climb via the TIMMY One departure.”

        NOTE: The aircraft will maintain the ATC assigned speed until Alisa waypoint and will then comply with the speed restrictions on the TIMMY One departure.

      • EXAMPLE
      • 2. “Cross Alisa at one zero thousand, then climb via the TIMMY One departure, except maintain two two zero knots.”

        NOTE: The aircraft will maintain the ATC assigned speed of two two zero knots and will not meet any published speed restrictions. Aircraft will meet all published altitude restrictions after Alisa.

      • EXAMPLE
      • 3. “Maintain two two zero knots until BALTR then resume published speed.”

        NOTE: The ATC assigned speed assignment of two two zero knots would apply until BALTR. The aircraft would then comply with the published speed restrictions.

      • EXAMPLE
      • 4. “Descend via the KEPEC Two arrival, except after NIPZO maintain one eight zero knots.”

        NOTE: The aircraft will comply with all published restrictions. After NIPZO, the aircraft will continue to comply with altitude restrictions, but will comply with the ATC assigned speed adjustment.

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