Section 8. Radar Departures

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  • Section 8. Radar Departures

    5-8-1. PROCEDURES

    Use standard departure routes and channelized altitudes whenever practical to reduce coordination. Do not, however, assign these routes solely to provide for possible radar or communication failure.

    5-8-2. INITIAL HEADING

    1. Before departure, assign the initial heading to be flown if a departing aircraft is to be vectored immediately after takeoff.
      • PHRASEOLOGY
      • FLY RUNWAY HEADING.
      • TURN LEFT/RIGHT, HEADING (degrees).
      • NOTE:
      • 1. TERMINAL. A purpose for the heading is not necessary, since pilots operating in a radar environment associate assigned headings with vectors to their planned route of flight.
      • 2. ATC assumes responsibility for terrain and obstacle avoidance when IFR aircraft are below the minimum IFR altitude (MVA, MIA, MEA) and are taken off departure/missed approach procedures, or are issued go-around instructions, except when utilizing a Diverse Vector Area (DVA) with an aircraft departing from the surface.
    2. Issue an altitude to maintain with the initial heading when the heading will take the aircraft off a departure procedure that contains both a published lateral path to a waypoint and crossing restrictions.
    3. When conducting simultaneous parallel runway departures utilizing RNAV SIDs, advise aircraft of the initial fix/waypoint on the RNAV route.
      • PHRASEOLOGY
      • RNAV to (fix/waypoint), RUNWAY (number), CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.
      • EXAMPLE
      • “RNAV to MPASS, Runway Two-Six Left, cleared for takeoff.”
      • NOTE:
      • 1. TERMINAL. A purpose for an initial waypoint advisory is not necessary since pilots associate this advisory with the flight path to their planned route of flight. Pilots must immediately advise ATC if a different RNAV SID is entered in the aircraft FMS.
      • 2. The SID transition is not restated as it is contained in the ATC clearance.
      • 3. Aircraft cleared via RNAV SIDs designed to begin with a vector to the initial waypoint are assigned a heading before departure.

    5-8-3. SUCCESSIVE OR SIMULTANEOUS DEPARTURES

    TERMINAL

    Separate aircraft departing from the same airport/heliport or adjacent airports/heliports in accordance with the following minima provided radar identification with the aircraft will be established within 1 mile of the takeoff runway end/helipad and courses will diverge by 15 degrees or more.

    • NOTE:
    • 1. FAA Order 8260.46, Departure Procedure (DP) Program, and FAA Order 8260.3, United States Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures (TERPS), Volume 4, establishes guidelines for IFR departure turning procedures which assumes a climb to 400 feet above the departure end of runway (DER) elevation before a turn is commenced. TERPS criteria ensures obstacle clearance with a climb gradient of 200 feet per nautical mile from the DER. “Immediately after departure” is considered to be any turn that provides at least 15 degrees of divergence that commences no later than 2 miles from the DER.
    • 2. Consider known aircraft performance characteristics when applying initial separation to successive departing aircraft.
    • 3. When one or both of the departure surfaces is a helipad, use the takeoff course of the helicopter as a reference, comparable to the centerline of a runway and the helipad center as the threshold.
    1. Between aircraft departing the same runway/ helipad or parallel runways/helicopter takeoff courses separated by less than 2,500 feet- 1 mile if courses diverge by 15 degrees or more immediately after departure or 10 degrees or more when both aircraft are departing the same runway and both are flying an RNAV SID. (See FIG 5-8-1, FIG 5-8-2, and FIG 5-8-3.)

      NOTE: RNAV SIDs specific to this paragraph are those SIDs constructed with a specific lateral path that begins at the DER.

      FIG 5-8-1 Successive Departures
      FIG 5-8-1 Successive Departures
      FIG 5-8-2 Simultaneous Departures
      FIG 5-8-2 Simultaneous Departures
      FIG 5-8-3 Simultaneous Departures
      FIG 5-8-3 Simultaneous Departures

      NOTE: This procedure does not apply when wake turbulence separation is required.

    2. Between aircraft departing from diverging runways:
      1. Nonintersecting runways. Authorize simultaneous takeoffs if runways diverge by 15 degrees or more. (See FIG 5-8-4.)
        FIG 5-8-4 Nonintersecting Runway Departures
        FIG 5-8-4 Nonintersecting Runway Departures
      2. Intersecting runways and/or helicopter takeoff courses which diverge by 15 degrees or more. Authorize takeoff of a succeeding aircraft when the preceding aircraft has passed the point of runway and/or takeoff course intersection. When applicable, apply the procedure in para 3-9-5, Anticipating Separation. (See FIG 5-8-5 and FIG 5-8-6.)
        FIG 5-8-5 Intersecting Runway Departures
        FIG 5-8-5 Intersecting Runway Departures

        NOTE: This procedure does not apply when wake turbulence separation is required.

        FIG 5-8-6 Intersecting Helicopter Course Departures
        FIG 5-8-6 Intersecting Helicopter Course Departures
    3. Between aircraft departing in the same direction from parallel runways/helicopter takeoff courses. Authorize simultaneous takeoffs if the centerlines/takeoff courses are separated by at least 2,500 feet and courses diverge by 15 degrees or more immediately after departure or 10 degrees or more when both aircraft are flying an RNAV SID. (See FIG 5-8-7 and FIG 5-8-8.)

      NOTE: RNAV SIDs specific to this paragraph are those SIDs constructed with a specific lateral path that begins at the DER.

      FIG 5-8-7 Parallel Runway Departures
      FIG 5-8-7 Parallel Runway Departures
      FIG 5-8-8 Parallel Helicopter Course Departures
      FIG 5-8-8 Parallel Helicopter Course Departures

    5-8-4. DEPARTURE AND ARRIVAL

    TERMINAL.Except as provided in para 5-8-5, Departures and Arrivals on Parallel or Nonintersecting Diverging Runways, separate a departing aircraft from an arriving aircraft on final approach by a minimum of 2 miles if separation will increase to a minimum of 3 miles (5 miles when 40 miles or more from the antenna) within 1 minute after takeoff.

    • NOTE:
    • 1. This procedure permits a departing aircraft to be released so long as an arriving aircraft is no closer than 2 miles from the runway at the time. This separation is determined at the time the departing aircraft commences takeoff roll.
    • 2. Consider the effect surface conditions, such as ice, snow, and other precipitation, may have on known aircraft performance characteristics, and the influence these conditions may have on the pilot’s ability to commence takeoff roll in a timely manner.

    5-8-5. DEPARTURES AND ARRIVALS ON PARALLEL OR NONINTERSECTING DIVERGING RUNWAYS

    TERMINAL. Authorize simultaneous operations between an aircraft departing on a runway and an aircraft on final approach to another parallel or nonintersecting diverging runway if the departure course diverges immediately by at least 30 degrees from the missed approach course until separation is applied and provided one of the following conditions are met:

    NOTE: When one or both of the takeoff/landing surfaces is a helipad, consider the helicopter takeoff course as the runway centerline and the helipad center as the threshold.

    1. When parallel runway thresholds are even, the runway centerlines are at least 2,500 feet apart. (See FIG 5-8-9 and FIG 5-8-10.)
      FIG 5-8-9 Parallel Thresholds are Even
      FIG 5-8-9 Parallel Thresholds are Even
      FIG 5-8-10 Parallel Thresholds are Even
      FIG 5-8-10 Parallel Thresholds are Even
    2. When parallel runway thresholds are staggered and:
      1. The arriving aircraft is approaching the nearer runway: the centerlines are at least 1,000 feet apart and the landing thresholds are staggered at least 500 feet for each 100 feet less than 2,500 the centerlines are separated. (See FIG 5-8-11 and FIG 5-8-12.)
        FIG 5-8-11 Parallel Thresholds are Staggered
        FIG 5-8-11 Parallel Thresholds are Staggered
        FIG 5-8-12 Parallel Thresholds are Staggered
        FIG 5-8-12 Parallel Thresholds are Staggered

        NOTE: In the event of a missed approach by an aircraft requiring wake turbulence separation behind it, apply the procedures in Paragraph 3−9−6, Same Runway Separation and/or Paragraph 3−9−8, Intersecting Runway/Intersecting Flight Path Operations to ensure that the larger aircraft does not overtake or cross in front of an aircraft departing from the adjacent parallel runway.

      2. The arriving aircraft is approaching the farther runway: the runway centerlines separation exceeds 2,500 feet by at least 100 feet for each 500 feet the landing thresholds are staggered. (See FIG 5-8-13.)
        FIG 5-8-13 Parallel Thresholds are Staggered
        FIG 5-8-13 Parallel Thresholds are Staggered
    3. When nonintersecting runways diverge by 15 degrees or more and runway edges do not touch. (See FIG 5-8-14.)
      FIG 5-8-14 Diverging Nonintersecting Runways
      FIG 5-8-14 Diverging Nonintersecting Runways
    4. When the aircraft on takeoff is a helicopter, hold the helicopter until visual separation is possible or apply the separation criteria in subparas a, b, or c.
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