Simultaneous offset instrument approaches (SOIA) may be conducted at FAA designated airports that have an
authorization issued by the Director, Operations-Headquarters, AJT-2, in coordination with AFS with parallel
runways that have centerlines separated by at least 750 feet and less than 3,000 feet with one final approach
course offset by 2.5 to 3.0 degrees; and
Provide a minimum of 1,000 feet vertical or a minimum of 3 miles radar separation between aircraft during
turn-on to final approaches.
NOTE: Communications transfer to the tower controller's frequency must be completed prior to losing vertical
separation between aircraft.
Provide the minimum applicable radar separation between aircraft on the same final approach course.
Provide the minimum applicable radar separation between the trailing offset aircraft of a leading SOIA pair
and the lead straight-in aircraft in the subsequent SOIA pair when the parallel runways have centerlines
separated by less than 2,500 feet.
The following conditions are required when applying the minimum separation between lead straight-in and offset
trailing approaches with glideslope courses or vertical navigation authorized in subparagraph a above:
Straight-in landings will be made.
All appropriate communication, navigation, and surveillance systems are operating normally.
Inform aircraft that PRM approaches are in use prior to aircraft departing an outer fix. This information may
be provided through the ATIS.
Clear the aircraft to descend to the appropriate glideslope/glidepath intercept altitude soon enough to
provide a period of level flight to dissipate excess speed. Provide at least 1 mile of straight flight prior
to the final approach course intercept.
NOTE: Not applicable to approaches with RF legs.
A no transgression Zone (NTZ) is established an equal distance between extended runway final approach courses
and must be depicted on the monitor display. The NTZ begins prior to the point where adjacent inbound aircraft
first lose vertical separation and extends to a point coincident with the location of the offset approach MAP.
The primary responsibility for navigation on the final approach course rests with the pilot. Control
instructions and information are issued only to ensure separation between aircraft and to prevent aircraft
from penetrating the NTZ.
Where RCLS is ≤3400 feet, the normal operating zone (NOZ) is constant at 700 feet; and for RCLS
≥3400 feet, the no transgression zone (NTZ) remains constant at 2000 feet.
Monitor all approaches regardless of weather. Monitor local control frequency to receive any aircraft
transmission. Issue control instructions as necessary to ensure aircraft do not enter the NTZ.
Separate monitor controllers, each with transmit/receive and override capability on the local control
frequency, must ensure aircraft do not penetrate the depicted NTZ. Facility directives must define the
responsibility for providing the minimum applicable longitudinal separation between aircraft on the same final
approach course and the minimum applicable longitudinal separation between the trailing offset aircraft of a
leading SOIA pair and the lead straight in aircraft in the subsequent SOIA pair when the parallel runways have
centerlines separated by less than 2,500 feet.
NOTE: The aircraft is considered the center of the digitized target for that aircraft for the purposes of
ensuring an aircraft does not penetrate the NTZ.
The following procedures must be used by the final monitor controllers:
Provide position information to an aircraft that is (left/right) of the depicted final approach course
centerline, and in your judgment is continuing on a track that may penetrate the NTZ.
(Aircraft call sign) I SHOW YOU (left/right) OF THE FINAL APPROACH COURSE.
Instruct the aircraft to return immediately to the correct final approach course when aircraft are observed to
overshoot the turn-on or continue on a track which will penetrate the NTZ.
YOU HAVE CROSSED THE FINAL APPROACH COURSE. TURN (left/right) IMMEDIATELY AND RETURN TO FINAL APPROACH
TURN (left/right) AND RETURN TO THE FINAL APPROACH COURSE.
Instruct aircraft on the adjacent final approach course to alter course to avoid the deviating aircraft when
an aircraft is observed penetrating or in your judgment will penetrate the NTZ.
NOTE: An instruction that may include a descent to avoid the deviating aircraft should only be used when
there is no other reasonable option available to the controller. In such a case, the descent must not put
the aircraft below the MVA.
Terminate radar monitoring when one of the following occurs:
(a) The lead straight in aircraft passes the end of the NTZ nearest the runway threshold.
(b) The trailing offset aircraft passes the end of the NTZ nearest the runway threshold and has reported
the lead straight in aircraft in sight.
(c) The aircraft begins the visual segment of the approach.
Do not inform the aircraft when radar monitoring is terminated.
Advise the pilot of the trailing offset aircraft of traffic on the adjacent lead straight-in approach course, if
that traffic will be a factor in the visual segment of the approach. The provisions of Paragraph 7-2-1, Visual
Separation, subparagraph a1, concerning visual separation between aircraft being provided by the tower must not be
applied to aircraft conducting SOIAs.
NOTE: Once advised, the pilot is authorized to continue past the offset approach MAP if all of the following
conditions are met: The pilot has the straight-in approach traffic in sight and expects the traffic to remain in
sight; the pilot advises ATC that the traffic is in sight; and the pilot has the runway environment in sight.
Otherwise, it is the pilot's responsibility to execute a missed approach at the offset approach MAP.
Ensure that the trailing offset aircraft is positioned to facilitate the flight crew's ability to see the lead
straight in traffic from the nominal clear-of-clouds point to the offset approach MAP so that the flight crew can
remain separated from that traffic visually from the offset approach MAP to the runway threshold.
NOTE: After accepting a clearance for an offset PRM approach, pilots must remain on the offset approach course
until passing the offset approach MAP prior to alignment with the runway centerline. Between the offset approach
MAP and the runway threshold, the pilot of the offset approach aircraft assumes visual separation responsibility
from the aircraft on the straight-in approach, which means maneuvering the aircraft as necessary to avoid the
straight in approach traffic until landing, and providing wake turbulence avoidance, if necessary.
In the visual segment between the offset approach MAP and the runway threshold, if the pilot of the trailing
offset aircraft loses visual contact with the lead straight-in traffic, the pilot must advise ATC as soon as
practical and follow the published missed approach procedure. If necessary, issue alternate missed approach
Wake turbulence requirements between aircraft on adjacent final approach courses inside the offset approach MAP
are as follows (standard in-trail wake separation must be applied between aircraft on the same approach course):
When runways are at least 2,500 feet apart, there are no wake turbulence requirements between aircraft on
adjacent final approach courses.
For runways less than 2,500 feet apart, whenever the ceiling is greater than or equal to 500 feet above the
MVA, wake vortex spacing between aircraft on adjacent final approach courses need not be applied.
For runways less than 2,500 feet apart, whenever the ceiling is less than 500 feet above the MVA, wake vortex
spacing between aircraft on adjacent final approach courses, as described in Para 5-5-4, Minima, must be
applied unless acceptable mitigating techniques and operational procedures have been documented and verified
by an AFS safety assessment and authorized by the Director, Operations-Headquarters, AJT-2. The wake
turbulence mitigation techniques employed will be based on each airport's specific runway geometry and
meteorological conditions and implemented through local facility directives.
Issue all applicable wake turbulence advisories.
FAA Order JO 8260.49, Para 13.0, Wake Turbulence Requirements.
FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-4-6, Simultaneous Independent Approaches.
Consideration should be given to known factors that may in any way affect the safety of the instrument approach
phase of flight when conducting SOIA to parallel runways. Factors include but are not limited to wind
direction/velocity, wind-shear alerts/reports, severe weather activity, etc. Closely monitor weather activity that
could impact the final approach course. Weather conditions in the vicinity of the final approach course may
dictate a change of the approach in use.