Chapter 1. General

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  • Chapter 1. General

    Section 1. Introduction

    1-1-1. PURPOSE OF THIS ORDER

    This order prescribes air traffic control procedures and phraseology for use by persons providing air traffic control services. Controllers are required to be familiar with the provisions of this order that pertain to their operational responsibilities and to exercise their best judgment if they encounter situations that are not covered by it.

    1-1-2. AUDIENCE

    This order applies to all ATO personnel and anyone using ATO directives.

    1-1-3. WHERE TO FIND THIS ORDER

    This order is available on the FAA Web site at http://www.faa.gov/regulations_policies/orders_notices.

    1-1-4. WHAT THIS ORDER CANCELS

    FAA Order JO 7110.65W, Air Traffic Control, dated December 10, 2015, and all changes to it are canceled.

    1-1-5. EXPLANATION OF CHANGES

    The significant changes to this order are identified in the Explanation of Changes page(s). It is advisable to retain the page(s) throughout the duration of the basic order.

    1-1-6. EFFECTIVE DATES AND SUBMIS- SIONS FOR CHANGES

    1. This order and its changes are scheduled to be published to coincide with AIRAC dates. (See TBL 1−1−1.)
    2. The “Cutoff Date for Completion” in the table below refers to the deadline for a proposed change to be fully coordinated and signed. Change initiators must submit their proposed changes well in advance of this cutoff date to meet the publication effective date. The process to review and coordinate changes often takes several months after the change is initially submitted.
    TBL 1-1-1 Publication Schedule
    Basic or Change Cutoff Date for Completion Effective Date of Publication
    JO 7110.65X 4/27/17 10/12/17
    Change 1 10/12/17 3/29/18
    Change 2 3/29/18 9/13/18
    Change 3 9/13/18 2/28/19
    JO 7110.65Y 2/28/19 8/15/19

    1-1-7. DELIVERY DATES

    1. If an FAA facility has not received the order/changes at least 30 days before the above effective dates, the facility must notify its service area office distribution officer.
    2. If a military facility has not received the order/changes at least 30 days before the above effective dates, the facility must notify its appropriate military headquarters. (See TBL 1-1-2.)
    TBL 1-1-2 Military Distribution Contacts
    Military Headquarters DSN Commercial
    U.S. Army USAASA 656-4868 (703) 806-4868
    U.S. Air Force HQ AFFSA 884-5509 (405) 734-5509
    U.S. Navy CNO (N980A) 224-2638 (703) 614-2638

    1-1-8. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PROCEDURAL CHANGES

    The office of primary responsibility (OPR) for this order is:

    • FAA Headquarters, Mission Support Services
    • Air Traffic Procedures (AJV-8)
    • 600 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20597
    1. Personnel should submit recommended changes in procedures to facility management.
    2. Recommendations from other sources should be submitted through appropriate FAA, military, or industry/user channels.
    3. Proposed changes must be submitted, electronically, to the Air Traffic Procedures Correspondence Mailbox at [email protected]. The submission should include a description of the recommended change, and the proposed language to be used in the order.

      NOTE: For details on the submission process as well as additional AJV−8 processing responsibilities, please see FAA Order JO 7000.5 Procedures for Submitting Changes to Air Traffic Control Publications.

    4. Procedural changes will not be made to this order until the operational system software has been adapted to accomplish the revised procedures

    1-1-9. REQUESTS FOR INTERPRETATIONS OR CLARIFICATIONS TO THIS ORDER

    1. Interpretation requests from field air traffic personnel must be submitted as follows:
      1. The request must be submitted,in writing,by an Air Traffic Facility/General manager to their Service Area Director.
      2. The Service Area Director must review the request and determine if more than one interpretation on the intent of the language can be inferred.
      3. If it is determined that an interpretation is required, the Service Area Director must submit the request, in writing, to the Air Traffic Procedures Directorate, for a response.
    2. If a request does not require an interpretation but further clarification is needed it must be forwarded to the Service Center Operations Support Group for a response.
      1. The Service Center Operations Support Group may consult with the Air Traffic Procedures Directorate when preparing their response.
      2. The Service Center Operations Support Group must provide a written response to the requestor and forward the response to the Air Traffic Procedures Directorate.
    3. Interpretation requests from all other sources must be submitted, in writing, to the Air Traffic Procedures Directorate through the Air Traffic Procedures correspondence mailbox.

    NOTE: Interpretations can be accessed through the Air Traffic Control Interpretation link at the following website: https://my.faa.gov/org/linebusiness/ato/mission_support/air_traffic_procedures.html.

    1-1-10. PROCEDURAL LETTERS OF AGREEMENT

    Procedures/minima which are applied jointly or otherwise require the cooperation or concurrence of more than one facility/organization must be docu- mented in a letter of agreement. Letters of agreement only supplement this order. Any minima they specify must not be less than that specified herein unless appropriate military authority has authorized application of reduced separation between military aircraft.

    1-1-11. CONSTRAINTS GOVERNING SUPPLEMENTS AND PROCEDURAL DEVIATIONS

    1. Exceptional or unusual requirements may dictate procedural deviations or supplementary procedures to this order. Prior to implementing supplemental or any procedural deviation that alters the level, quality, or degree of service, obtain prior approval from the Vice President, Mission Support Services.
    2. If military operations or facilities are involved, prior approval by the following appropriate headquarters is required for subsequent interface with FAA. (See TBL 1-1-3.)
    TBL 1-1-3 Military Operations Interface Offices
    Branch Address
    U.S. Navy
    • Department of the Navy
    • Chief of Naval Operations
    • N980A, NAATSEA
    • 2000 Navy Pentagon (5D453)
    • Washington, D.C. 20350-2000
    U.S. Air Force
    • HQ AFFSA
    • 5316 S. Douglas Blvd
    • Bldg 8400, Room 232
    • Oklahoma City, OK 73150
    U.S. Army
    • Director
    • USAASA (MOAS-AS)
    • 9325 Gunston Road, Suite N319
    • Ft. Belvoir, VA 22060-5582

    NOTE: Terminal: Headquarters Air Force Flight Standards Agency is the approval authority for any USAF procedures or minima that differ from those specified herein and that involve military aircraft only.

    1-1-12. SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (SMS)

    Every employee is responsible to ensure the safety of equipment and procedures used in the provision of services within the National Airspace System (NAS). Risk assessment techniques and mitigations, as appropriate, are intended for implementation of any planned safety significant changes within the NAS, as directed by FAA Order 1100.161, Air Traffic Safety Oversight. Direction regarding the SMS and its application can be found in the FAA Safety Management System Manual and FAA Order 1100.161. The SMS will be implemented through a period of transitional activities. (Additional information pertaining to these requirements and processes can be obtained by contacting the service area offices.)

    1-1-13. REFERENCES TO FAA NON-AIR TRAFFIC ORGANIZATIONS

    When references are made to regional office organizations that are not part of the Air Traffic Organization (i.e., Communications Center, Flight Standards, Airport offices, etc.), the facility should contact the FAA region where the facility is physically located - not the region where the facility’s service area office is located.

    1-1-14. DISTRIBUTION

    This order is distributed to selected offices in Washington headquarters, regional offices, service area offices, the William J. Hughes Technical Center, and the Mike Monroney Aeronautical Center. Also, copies are sent to all air traffic field facilities and international aviation field offices; and to interested aviation public.

    Section 2. Terms of Reference

    1-2-1. WORD MEANINGS

    As used in this order:

    1. “Shall” or “must” means a procedure is mandatory.
    2. “Shall not” or “must not” means a procedure is prohibited.
    3. “Should” means a procedure is recommended.
    4. “May” or “need not” means a procedure is optional.
    5. “Will” means futurity, not a requirement for the application of a procedure.
    6. Singular words include the plural.
    7. Plural words include the singular.
    8. “Aircraft” means the airframe, crew members, or both.
    9. “Approved separation” means separation in accordance with the applicable minima in this order.
    10. “Altitude” means indicated altitude mean sea level (MSL), flight level (FL), or both.
    11. “Miles” means nautical miles unless otherwise specified, and means statute miles in conjunction with visibility.
    12. “Course,” “bearing,” “azimuth,” “heading,” and “wind direction” information must always be magnetic unless specifically stated otherwise.
    13. “Time” when used for ATC operational activities, is the hour and the minute in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Change to the next minute is made at the minute plus 30 seconds, except time checks are given to the nearest quarter minute.
    14. “Runway” means the runway used by aircraft and, unless otherwise specified, does not include helipads and/or their accompanying takeoff/landing courses. (See Pilot/Controller Glossary terms - Runway and Helipad.)
    15. Flight operations in accordance with the options of “due regard” or “operational” obligates the authorized state aircraft commander to:
      1. Separate his/her aircraft from all other air traffic; and
      2. Assure that an appropriate monitoring agency assumes responsibility for search and rescue actions; and
      3. Operate under at least one of the following conditions:
        1. (a) In visual meteorological conditions (VMC); or
        2. (b) Wthin radar surveillance and radio communications of a surface radar facility; or
        3. (c) Be equipped with airborne radar that is sufficient to provide separation between his/her aircraft and any other aircraft he/she may be controlling and other aircraft; or
        4. (d) Operate within Class G airspace.
        5. (e) An understanding between the pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft leaves ATC frequency.
      • NOTE:
      • 1. A pilot’s use of the phrase “Going Tactical” does not indicate “Due Regard.” An understanding between the pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft leaves air traffic control (ATC) frequency.
      • 2. The above conditions provide for a level of safety equivalent to that normally given by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) ATC agencies and fulfills U.S. Government obligations under Article 3 of the Chicago Convention of 1944 (Reference (d)), which stipulates there must be “due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft” when flight is not being conducted under ICAO flight procedures.
    16. “CFR” means Code of Federal Regulations.

    1-2-1. WORD MEANINGS

    As used in this order:

    1. “Shall” or “must” means a procedure is mandatory.
    2. “Shall not” or “must not” means a procedure is prohibited.
    3. “Should” means a procedure is recommended.
    4. “May” or “need not” means a procedure is optional.
    5. “Will” means futurity, not a requirement for the application of a procedure.
    6. Singular words include the plural.
    7. Plural words include the singular.
    8. “Aircraft” means the airframe, crew members, or both.
    9. “Approved separation” means separation in accordance with the applicable minima in this order.
    10. “Altitude” means indicated altitude mean sea level (MSL), flight level (FL), or both.
    11. “Miles” means nautical miles unless otherwise specified, and means statute miles in conjunction with visibility.
    12. “Course,” “bearing,” “azimuth,” “heading,” and “wind direction” information must always be magnetic unless specifically stated otherwise.
    13. “Time” when used for ATC operational activities, is the hour and the minute in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Change to the next minute is made at the minute plus 30 seconds, except time checks are given to the nearest quarter minute.
    14. “Runway” means the runway used by aircraft and, unless otherwise specified, does not include helipads and/or their accompanying takeoff/landing courses. (See Pilot/Controller Glossary terms - Runway and Helipad.)
    15. Flight operations in accordance with the options of “due regard” or “operational” obligates the authorized state aircraft commander to:
      1. Separate his/her aircraft from all other air traffic; and
      2. Assure that an appropriate monitoring agency assumes responsibility for search and rescue actions; and
      3. Operate under at least one of the following conditions:
        1. (a) In visual meteorological conditions (VMC); or
        2. (b) Wthin radar surveillance and radio communications of a surface radar facility; or
        3. (c) Be equipped with airborne radar that is sufficient to provide separation between his/her aircraft and any other aircraft he/she may be controlling and other aircraft; or
        4. (d) Operate within Class G airspace.
        5. (e) An understanding between the pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft leaves ATC frequency.
      • NOTE:
      • 1. A pilot’s use of the phrase “Going Tactical” does not indicate “Due Regard.” An understanding between the pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft leaves air traffic control (ATC) frequency.
      • 2. The above conditions provide for a level of safety equivalent to that normally given by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) ATC agencies and fulfills U.S. Government obligations under Article 3 of the Chicago Convention of 1944 (Reference (d)), which stipulates there must be “due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft” when flight is not being conducted under ICAO flight procedures.
    16. “CFR” means Code of Federal Regulations.

    1-2-1. WORD MEANINGS

    As used in this order:

    1. “Shall” or “must” means a procedure is mandatory.
    2. “Shall not” or “must not” means a procedure is prohibited.
    3. “Should” means a procedure is recommended.
    4. “May” or “need not” means a procedure is optional.
    5. “Will” means futurity, not a requirement for the application of a procedure.
    6. Singular words include the plural.
    7. Plural words include the singular.
    8. “Aircraft” means the airframe, crew members, or both.
    9. “Approved separation” means separation in accordance with the applicable minima in this order.
    10. “Altitude” means indicated altitude mean sea level (MSL), flight level (FL), or both.
    11. “Miles” means nautical miles unless otherwise specified, and means statute miles in conjunction with visibility.
    12. “Course,” “bearing,” “azimuth,” “heading,” and “wind direction” information must always be magnetic unless specifically stated otherwise.
    13. “Time” when used for ATC operational activities, is the hour and the minute in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Change to the next minute is made at the minute plus 30 seconds, except time checks are given to the nearest quarter minute.
    14. “Runway” means the runway used by aircraft and, unless otherwise specified, does not include helipads and/or their accompanying takeoff/landing courses. (See Pilot/Controller Glossary terms - Runway and Helipad.)
    15. Flight operations in accordance with the options of “due regard” or “operational” obligates the authorized state aircraft commander to:
      1. Separate his/her aircraft from all other air traffic; and
      2. Assure that an appropriate monitoring agency assumes responsibility for search and rescue actions; and
      3. Operate under at least one of the following conditions:
        1. (a) In visual meteorological conditions (VMC); or
        2. (b) Wthin radar surveillance and radio communications of a surface radar facility; or
        3. (c) Be equipped with airborne radar that is sufficient to provide separation between his/her aircraft and any other aircraft he/she may be controlling and other aircraft; or
        4. (d) Operate within Class G airspace.
        5. (e) An understanding between the pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft leaves ATC frequency.
      • NOTE:
      • 1. A pilot’s use of the phrase “Going Tactical” does not indicate “Due Regard.” An understanding between the pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft leaves air traffic control (ATC) frequency.
      • 2. The above conditions provide for a level of safety equivalent to that normally given by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) ATC agencies and fulfills U.S. Government obligations under Article 3 of the Chicago Convention of 1944 (Reference (d)), which stipulates there must be “due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft” when flight is not being conducted under ICAO flight procedures.
    16. “CFR” means Code of Federal Regulations.

    1-2-1. WORD MEANINGS

    As used in this order:

    1. “Shall” or “must” means a procedure is mandatory.
    2. “Shall not” or “must not” means a procedure is prohibited.
    3. “Should” means a procedure is recommended.
    4. “May” or “need not” means a procedure is optional.
    5. “Will” means futurity, not a requirement for the application of a procedure.
    6. Singular words include the plural.
    7. Plural words include the singular.
    8. “Aircraft” means the airframe, crew members, or both.
    9. “Approved separation” means separation in accordance with the applicable minima in this order.
    10. “Altitude” means indicated altitude mean sea level (MSL), flight level (FL), or both.
    11. “Miles” means nautical miles unless otherwise specified, and means statute miles in conjunction with visibility.
    12. “Course,” “bearing,” “azimuth,” “heading,” and “wind direction” information must always be magnetic unless specifically stated otherwise.
    13. “Time” when used for ATC operational activities, is the hour and the minute in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Change to the next minute is made at the minute plus 30 seconds, except time checks are given to the nearest quarter minute.
    14. “Runway” means the runway used by aircraft and, unless otherwise specified, does not include helipads and/or their accompanying takeoff/landing courses. (See Pilot/Controller Glossary terms - Runway and Helipad.)
    15. Flight operations in accordance with the options of “due regard” or “operational” obligates the authorized state aircraft commander to:
      1. Separate his/her aircraft from all other air traffic; and
      2. Assure that an appropriate monitoring agency assumes responsibility for search and rescue actions; and
      3. Operate under at least one of the following conditions:
        1. (a) In visual meteorological conditions (VMC); or
        2. (b) Wthin radar surveillance and radio communications of a surface radar facility; or
        3. (c) Be equipped with airborne radar that is sufficient to provide separation between his/her aircraft and any other aircraft he/she may be controlling and other aircraft; or
        4. (d) Operate within Class G airspace.
        5. (e) An understanding between the pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft leaves ATC frequency.
      • NOTE:
      • 1. A pilot’s use of the phrase “Going Tactical” does not indicate “Due Regard.” An understanding between the pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft leaves air traffic control (ATC) frequency.
      • 2. The above conditions provide for a level of safety equivalent to that normally given by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) ATC agencies and fulfills U.S. Government obligations under Article 3 of the Chicago Convention of 1944 (Reference (d)), which stipulates there must be “due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft” when flight is not being conducted under ICAO flight procedures.
    16. “CFR” means Code of Federal Regulations.

    1-2-1. WORD MEANINGS

    As used in this order:

    1. “Shall” or “must” means a procedure is mandatory.
    2. “Shall not” or “must not” means a procedure is prohibited.
    3. “Should” means a procedure is recommended.
    4. “May” or “need not” means a procedure is optional.
    5. “Will” means futurity, not a requirement for the application of a procedure.
    6. Singular words include the plural.
    7. Plural words include the singular.
    8. “Aircraft” means the airframe, crew members, or both.
    9. “Approved separation” means separation in accordance with the applicable minima in this order.
    10. “Altitude” means indicated altitude mean sea level (MSL), flight level (FL), or both.
    11. “Miles” means nautical miles unless otherwise specified, and means statute miles in conjunction with visibility.
    12. “Course,” “bearing,” “azimuth,” “heading,” and “wind direction” information must always be magnetic unless specifically stated otherwise.
    13. “Time” when used for ATC operational activities, is the hour and the minute in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Change to the next minute is made at the minute plus 30 seconds, except time checks are given to the nearest quarter minute.
    14. “Runway” means the runway used by aircraft and, unless otherwise specified, does not include helipads and/or their accompanying takeoff/landing courses. (See Pilot/Controller Glossary terms - Runway and Helipad.)
    15. Flight operations in accordance with the options of “due regard” or “operational” obligates the authorized state aircraft commander to:
      1. Separate his/her aircraft from all other air traffic; and
      2. Assure that an appropriate monitoring agency assumes responsibility for search and rescue actions; and
      3. Operate under at least one of the following conditions:
        1. (a) In visual meteorological conditions (VMC); or
        2. (b) Wthin radar surveillance and radio communications of a surface radar facility; or
        3. (c) Be equipped with airborne radar that is sufficient to provide separation between his/her aircraft and any other aircraft he/she may be controlling and other aircraft; or
        4. (d) Operate within Class G airspace.
        5. (e) An understanding between the pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft leaves ATC frequency.
      • NOTE:
      • 1. A pilot’s use of the phrase “Going Tactical” does not indicate “Due Regard.” An understanding between the pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft leaves air traffic control (ATC) frequency.
      • 2. The above conditions provide for a level of safety equivalent to that normally given by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) ATC agencies and fulfills U.S. Government obligations under Article 3 of the Chicago Convention of 1944 (Reference (d)), which stipulates there must be “due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft” when flight is not being conducted under ICAO flight procedures.
    16. “CFR” means Code of Federal Regulations.

    1-2-1. WORD MEANINGS

    As used in this order:

    1. “Shall” or “must” means a procedure is mandatory.
    2. “Shall not” or “must not” means a procedure is prohibited.
    3. “Should” means a procedure is recommended.
    4. “May” or “need not” means a procedure is optional.
    5. “Will” means futurity, not a requirement for the application of a procedure.
    6. Singular words include the plural.
    7. Plural words include the singular.
    8. “Aircraft” means the airframe, crew members, or both.
    9. “Approved separation” means separation in accordance with the applicable minima in this order.
    10. “Altitude” means indicated altitude mean sea level (MSL), flight level (FL), or both.
    11. “Miles” means nautical miles unless otherwise specified, and means statute miles in conjunction with visibility.
    12. “Course,” “bearing,” “azimuth,” “heading,” and “wind direction” information must always be magnetic unless specifically stated otherwise.
    13. “Time” when used for ATC operational activities, is the hour and the minute in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Change to the next minute is made at the minute plus 30 seconds, except time checks are given to the nearest quarter minute.
    14. “Runway” means the runway used by aircraft and, unless otherwise specified, does not include helipads and/or their accompanying takeoff/landing courses. (See Pilot/Controller Glossary terms - Runway and Helipad.)
    15. Flight operations in accordance with the options of “due regard” or “operational” obligates the authorized state aircraft commander to:
      1. Separate his/her aircraft from all other air traffic; and
      2. Assure that an appropriate monitoring agency assumes responsibility for search and rescue actions; and
      3. Operate under at least one of the following conditions:
        1. (a) In visual meteorological conditions (VMC); or
        2. (b) Wthin radar surveillance and radio communications of a surface radar facility; or
        3. (c) Be equipped with airborne radar that is sufficient to provide separation between his/her aircraft and any other aircraft he/she may be controlling and other aircraft; or
        4. (d) Operate within Class G airspace.
        5. (e) An understanding between the pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft leaves ATC frequency.
      • NOTE:
      • 1. A pilot’s use of the phrase “Going Tactical” does not indicate “Due Regard.” An understanding between the pilot and controller regarding the intent of the pilot and the status of the flight should be arrived at before the aircraft leaves air traffic control (ATC) frequency.
      • 2. The above conditions provide for a level of safety equivalent to that normally given by International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) ATC agencies and fulfills U.S. Government obligations under Article 3 of the Chicago Convention of 1944 (Reference (d)), which stipulates there must be “due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft” when flight is not being conducted under ICAO flight procedures.
    16. “CFR” means Code of Federal Regulations.
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