Section 1. General

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  • Section 1. General


    1. Provide radar services only if you are personally satisfied that the radar presentation and equipment performance is adequate for the service being provided.

      NOTE: The provision of radar services is not limited to the distance and altitude parameters obtained during the commissioning flight check. FAA Order 8200.1, United States Standard Flight Inspection Manual, Chapter 14, Surveillance, describes the surveillance flight inspection procedures.

    2. Notify the OS/CIC of any radar malfunctions or unexpected outages. Advise adjacent facilities when appropriate.


    Use approved ATC Surveillance Sources.

    1. Secondary radar may be used as the sole display source as follows:
      1. In Class A airspace.
      2. Outside Class A airspace, or where mix of Class A airspace/non-Class A airspace exists, only when:
        1. (a) Additional coverage is provided by secondary radar beyond that of the primary radar, or
        2. (b) The primary radar is temporarily unusable or out of service. Advise pilots when these conditions exist, or
          • PHRASEOLOGY
          • NOTE:
          • 1. Advisory may be omitted when provided on ATIS and pilot indicates having ATIS information.
          • 2. This provision is to authorize secondary radar only operations where there is no primary radar available and the condition is temporary.
        3. (c) A secondary radar system is the only source of radar data for the area of service. TERMINAL. Advise pilots when these conditions exist.

          NOTE: Advisory may be omitted when provided on ATIS or by other appropriate notice to pilots.

    2. TERMINAL. Do not use secondary radar only to conduct surveillance (ASR) final approaches unless an emergency exists and the pilot concurs.
    3. All procedures and requirements relating to ATC services using secondary radar targets apply to ATC services provided to targets derived from ADS-B and WAM.
    4. Targets derived from ADS-B and WAM may be used for the provision of all terminal services when operating in STARS Fusion, STARS FMA, and STARS Multi-Sensor Mode, including those associated with any published instrument procedure annotated "radar required."

      NOTE: Targets derived from WAM cannot be used to provide 3NM separation in the EAS. 3NM targets are not derived from WAM within the EAS.


    1. Refer all EA activity requests to the appropriate center supervisor.
      • FAA Order JO 7610.4, Chapter 2, Section 7, Electronic Attack (EA) and Testing Coordination.

      NOTE: EA activity can subsequently result in a request to apply EA videos to the radar system which may necessitate the decertification of the narrow band search radar. The Systems Engineer should be consulted concerning the effect of EA on the operational use of the narrow band radar prior to approving/disapproving requests to conduct EA activity.

    2. When EA activity interferes with the operational use of radar:
      1. EN ROUTE. Request the responsible military unit or aircraft, if initial request was received directly from pilot, to suspend the activity.
      2. TERMINAL. Request suspension of the activity through the ARTCC. If immediate cessation of the activity is required, broadcast the request directly to the EA aircraft on the emergency frequency. Notify the ARTCC of direct broadcast as soon as possible.
    3. When previously suspended activity will no longer interfere:
      1. EN ROUTE. Inform the NORAD unit or aircraft that it may be resumed.
      2. TERMINAL. Inform the ARTCC or aircraft that it may be resumed. Obtain approval from the ARTCC prior to broadcasting a resume clearance directly to the aircraft.
    4. In each stop request, include your facility name, type of EA activity (chaff dispensing- “stream”/“burst” or electronic jamming- “buzzer”), radar band affected and, when feasible, expected duration of suspension.
      • BIG PHOTO (identification, if known) (name) CENTER/TOWER/APPROACH CONTROL.
      • To stop EA activity:
      • STOP STREAM/BURST IN AREA (area name) (degree and distance from facility),
      • or
      • STOP BUZZER ON (frequency band or channel).
      • To resume EA activity:
      • or
      • RESUME BUZZER ON (frequency band or channel).


    1. Except while they are established in a holding pattern, apply merging target procedures to all radar identified:
      1. Aircraft at 10,000 feet and above.
      2. Turbojet aircraft regardless of altitude.
      3. Presidential aircraft regardless of altitude.
    2. Issue traffic information to the aircraft listed in subparagraph a whose targets appear likely to merge unless the aircraft are separated by more than the appropriate vertical separation minima.
      • EXAMPLE
      • “Traffic twelve o'clock, seven miles, eastbound, Gulfstream 650, one seven thousand.”
      • “United Sixteen and American Twenty-Five, traffic twelve o'clock, one zero miles, opposite direction, eastbound Seven Thirty-Seven at flight level three three zero, westbound Airbus Three Twenty at flight level three two zero.”
    3. When both aircraft in subparagraph b are in RVSM airspace, and vertically separated by 1,000 feet, and either pilot reports they are unable to maintain RVSM due to turbulence or mountain wave, use vectors to prevent the targets from merging.
      • EXAMPLE
      • “Delta One Twenty Three, fly heading two niner zero, vector for traffic. Traffic twelve o'clock, one zero miles, opposite direction, Seven Thirty-Seven, eastbound at flight level three one zero.”
    4. If the pilot requests, vector their aircraft to avoid merging targets with the previously issued traffic.

      NOTE: Because aircraft closure rates can be rapid, issue traffic with enough time for the pilot to decide if a vector is necessary.

    5. If unable to provide vector service, inform the pilot.

      NOTE: The phraseology “Unable RVSM due turbulence (or mountain wave)” is only intended for severe turbulence or other weather encounters with altitude deviations of approximately 200 feet or more.


    Provide radar surveillance of outer fix holding pattern airspace areas, or any portions thereof, shown on your radar scope (displayed on the video map or scribed on the map overlay) whenever aircraft are holding there. Attempt to detect any aircraft that stray outside the area. If you detect an aircraft straying outside the area, assist it to return to the assigned airspace.


    Inform an aircraft when it is observed in a position and on a track which will obviously cause the aircraft to deviate from its protected airspace area. If necessary, help the aircraft to return to the assigned protected airspace.

    • NOTE:
    • 1. RNAV ATS routes have a width of 8 miles and laterally protected airspace of 4 miles on each side of the route centerline
    • 2. Navigation system performance requirements for operations on RNAV ATS routes require the aircraft system be capable of remaining within 2 miles of the route centerline. Aircraft approaching this limit may be experiencing a navigation system error or failure.



    Manually record the observed or reported time over a fix at least once for each controlled aircraft in your sector of responsibility when the flight progress recording components of the EAS FDP are not operational.

    • FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 6-1-6, Flight Progress Strip Usage.


    If necessary, you may request an aircraft to provide an estimate or report over a specific fix. After an aircraft receives the statement “radar contact” from ATC, it discontinues reporting over compulsory reporting points. It resumes normal position reporting when ATC informs it “radar contact lost” or “radar service terminated.”

    1. When required, inform an aircraft of its position with respect to a fix or airway.
      • OVER/PASSING (fix).
      • (Number of miles) MILES FROM (fix).
      • (Number of miles) MILES (direction) OF (fix, airway, or location).
      • CROSSING/JOINING/DEPARTING (airway or route).
      • INTERCEPTING/CROSSING (name of NAVAID) (specified) RADIAL.


    1. Inform aircraft when radar service is terminated.
      • RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED (nonradar routing if required).
    2. Radar service is automatically terminated and the aircraft needs not be advised of termination when:

      NOTE: Termination of radar monitoring when conducting simultaneous ILS approaches is prescribed in paragraph 5-9-7, Simultaneous Independent Approaches- Dual   Triple.

      1. An aircraft cancels its IFR flight plan, except within Class B airspace, Class C airspace, TRSA, or where basic radar service is provided.
      2. An aircraft conducting an instrument, visual, or contact approach has landed or has been instructed to change to advisory frequency.
      3. At tower-controlled airports where radar coverage does not exist to within 1/2 mile of the end of the runway, arriving aircraft must be informed when radar service is terminated.
        • REFERENCE
        • FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 10-5-6, Radar Tolerances.
      4. TERMINAL. An arriving VFR aircraft receiving radar service to a tower-controlled airport within Class B airspace, Class C airspace, TRSA, or where basic radar service is provided has landed, or to all other airports, is instructed to change to tower or advisory frequency.
      5. TERMINAL. An aircraft completes a radar approach.
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