5-5-4. MINIMA

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  • 5-5-4. MINIMA

    Separate aircraft by the following minima:

    1. TERMINAL. Single Sensor ASR or Digital Terminal Automation System (DTAS):

      NOTE: Includes single sensor long range radar mode.

      1. When less than 40 miles from the antenna- 3 miles.
      2. When 40 miles or more from the antenna- 5 miles.
      3. For single sensor ASR-9 with Mode S, when less than 60 miles from the antenna- 3 miles.
      4. For single sensor ASR-11 MSSR Beacon, when less than 60 miles from the antenna- 3 miles.

      NOTE: Wake turbulence procedures specify increased separation minima required for certain classes of aircraft because of the possible effects of wake turbulence.

    2. TERMINAL. FUSION:
      1. Fusion target symbol- 3 miles.
      2. When displaying ISR in the data block- 5 miles.

        NOTE: In the event of an unexpected ISR on one or more aircraft, the ATCS working that aircraft must transition from 3-mile to 5-mile separation, or establish some other form of approved separation (visual or vertical) as soon as feasible. This action must be timely, but taken in a reasonable fashion, using the controller’s best judgment, as not to reduce safety or the integrity of the traffic situation. For example, if ISR appears when an aircraft is established on final with another aircraft on short final, it would be beneficial from a safety perspective to allow the trailing aircraft to continue the approach and land rather than terminate a stabilized approach.

      3. If TRK appears in the data block, handle in accordance with Paragraph 5-3-7, Identification Status, subparagraph b, and take appropriate steps to establish non-radar separation.
      4. ADS-B may be integrated as an additional surveillance source when operating in FUSION mode. The display of ADS-B targets is permitted and does not require radar reinforcement.

        NOTE: ADS-B surveillance must only be used when operating in FUSION.

      5. The use of ADS-B only information may be used to support all radar requirements associated with any published instrument procedure that is annotated “Radar Required”.
      6. The ADS-B Computer Human Interface (CHI) may be implemented by facilities on a sector by sector or facility wide basis when the determination is made that utilization of the ADS-B CHI provides an operational advantage to the controller.
    3. EBUS, Terminal Mosaic/Multi-Sensor Mode

      NOTE: Mosaic/Multi-Sensor Mode combines radar input from 2 to 16 sites into a single picture utilizing a mosaic grid composed of radar sort boxes.

      1. Below FL 600- 5 miles.
      2. At or above FL 600- 10 miles.
      3. Facility directives may specify 3 miles for areas meeting all of the following conditions:
        1. (a) Radar site adaptation is set to single sensor.
        2. (b) Significant operational advantages can be obtained.
        3. (c) Within 40 miles of the antenna.
        4. (d) Up to and including FL 230.
        5. (e) Facility directives specifically define the area where the separation can be applied and define the requirements for displaying the area on the controller’s display.
        • REFERENCE
        • FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 8-2-1, Three Mile Airspace Operations.
        • FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 11-8-15, Single Site Coverage ATTS Operations.
      4. When transitioning from terminal to en route control, 3 miles increasing to 5 miles or greater, provided:
        1. (a) The aircraft are on diverging routes/ courses, and/or
        2. (b) The leading aircraft is and will remain faster than the following aircraft; and
        3. (c) Separation constantly increasing and the first center controller will establish 5 NM or other appropriate form of separation prior to the aircraft departing the first center sector; and
        4. (d) The procedure is covered by a letter of agreement between the facilities involved and limited to specified routes and/or sectors/positions.
    4. ERAM:
      1. Below FL 600- 5 miles.
      2. At or above FL 600- 10 miles.
      3. Up to and including FL 230 where all the following conditions are met - 3 miles:
        1. (a) Significant operational advantages can be obtained.
        2. (b) Within 40 miles of the preferred sensor, and within the 3 NM separation area.
        3. (c) The preferred sensor is providing reliable beacon targets.
        4. (d) Facility directives specifically define the 3 NM separation area.
        5. (e) The 3 NM separation area is displayable on the video map.
        6. (f) Involved aircraft are displayed using the 3 NM target symbol.
      4. When transitioning from terminal to en route control, 3 miles increasing to 5 miles or greater, provided:
        1. (a) The aircraft are on diverging routes/courses, and/or
        2. (b) The leading aircraft is and will remain faster than the following aircraft; and
        3. (c) Separation constantly increasing and the first center controller will establish 5 NM or other appropriate form of separation prior to the aircraft departing the first center sector; and
        4. (d) The procedure is covered by a letter of agreement between the facilities involved and limited to specified routes and/or sectors/positions.
        • REFERENCE
        • FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 8-2-1, Three Mile Airspace Operations.
        • FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 11-8-15, Single Site Coverage ATTS Operations.
    5. MEARTS Mosaic Mode:
      1. Below FL 600- 5 miles.
      2. At or above FL 600- 10 miles.
      3. For areas meeting all of the following conditions - 3 miles:
        1. (a) Radar site adaptation is set to single sensor mode.
          • NOTE:
          • 1. Single Sensor Mode displays information from the radar input of a single site.
          • 2. Procedures to convert MEARTS Mosaic Mode to MEARTS Single Sensor Mode at each PVD/MDM will be established by facility directive.
        2. (b) Significant operational advantages can be obtained.
        3. (c) Within 40 NM of the sensor or within 60 NM of the sensor when using ASR−9 with Mode S or ASR−11 MSSR Beacon and within the 3 NM separation area.
        4. (d) Up to and including FL230.
        5. (e) Facility directives specifically define the area where the separation can be applied and define the requirements for displaying the area on the controller’s PVD/MDM.
      4. MEARTS Mosaic Mode Utilizing Single Source Polygon (San Juan CERAP and Honolulu Control Facility only) when meeting all of the following conditions- 3 miles:
        1. (a) Up to and including FL230 within 40 miles from the antenna or within 60 NM when using ASR−9 with Mode S or ASR−11 MSSR Beacon and targets are from the adapted sensor.
        2. (b) The single source polygon must be displayed on the controller’s PVD/MDM.
        3. (c) Significant operational advantages can be obtained.
        4. (d) Facility directives specifically define the single source polygon area where the separation can be applied and specify procedures to be used.
        5. (e) Controller must commence a transition to achieve either vertical separation or 5 mile lateral separation in the event that either target is not from the adapted sensor.
    6. STARS Multi-Sensor Mode:
      • NOTE:
      • 1. In Multi-Sensor Mode, STARS displays targets as filled and unfilled boxes, depending upon the target’s distance from the radar site providing the data. Since there is presently no way to identify which specific site is providing data for any given target, utilize separation standards for targets 40 or more miles from the antenna.
      • 2. When operating in STARS Single Sensor Mode, if TRK appears in the data block, handle in accordance with para 5-3-7, Identification Status, subpara b, and take appropriate steps to establish nonradar separation.
      • 3. TRK appears in the data block whenever the aircraft is being tracked by a radar site other than the radar currently selected. Current equipment limitations preclude a target from being displayed in the single sensor mode; however, a position symbol and data block, including altitude information, will still be displayed. Therefore, low altitude alerts must be provided in accordance with para 2-1-6, Safety Alert.

      WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION

    7. Separate aircraft operating directly behind or following an aircraft conducting an instrument approach by the minima specified and in accordance with the following:

      NOTE: Consider parallel runways less than 2,500 feet apart as a single runway because of the possible effects of wake turbulence.

      1. When operating within 2,500 feet of the flight path of the leading aircraft over the surface of the earth and less than 1,000 feet below:
        1. (a) TERMINAL. Behind super:
          1. (1) Heavy - 6 miles.
          2. (2) Large - 7 miles.
          3. (3) Small - 8 miles.
        2. (b) EN ROUTE. Behind super - 5 miles, unless the super is operating at or below FL240 and below 250 knots, then:
          1. (1) Heavy - 6 miles.
          2. (2) Large - 7 miles.
          3. (3) Small - 8 miles.
        3. (c) Behind heavy:
          1. (1) Heavy - 4 miles.
          2. (2) Large or small - 5 miles.
      2. Separate small aircraft behind a B757 by 4 miles when operating within 2,500 feet of the flight path of the leading aircraft over the surface of the earth and/or less than 500 feet below.
      3. TERMINAL. When departing parallel runways separated by less than 2,500 feet, the 2,500 feet requirement in subparagraph 2 is not required when a small departs the parallel runway behind a B757. Issue a wake turbulence cautionary advisory and instructions that will establish lateral separation in accordance with subparagraph 2. Do not issue instructions that will allow the small to pass behind the B757.
        • NOTE:
        • 1. The application of Paragraph 5-8-3, Successive or Simultaneous Departures, satisfies this requirement.
        • 2. Consider runways separated by less than 700 feet as a single runway because of the possible effects of wake turbulence.

      WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION

    8. In addition to subpara g, separate an aircraft landing behind another aircraft on the same runway, or one making a touch-and-go, stop-and-go, or low approach by ensuring the following minima will exist at the time the preceding aircraft is over the landing threshold:
      • NOTE:
      • Consider parallel runways less than 2,500 feet apart as a single runway because of the possible effects of wake turbulence.
        • Small behind large- 4 miles.
        • Small behind heavy- 6 miles.
      • If the landing threshold cannot be determined, apply the above minima as constant or increasing at the closest point that can be determined prior to the landing threshold.
    9. TERMINAL. When NOWGT is displayed in an aircraft data block, provide 10 miles separation behind the preceding aircraft and 10 miles separation to the succeeding aircraft.
    10. TERMINAL. 2.5 nautical miles (NM) separation is authorized between aircraft established on the final approach course within 10 NM of the landing runway when operating in single sensor slant range mode and aircraft remains within 40 miles of the antenna and:
      1. The leading aircraft’s weight class is the same or less than the trailing aircraft;
      2. Super and heavy aircraft are permitted to participate in the separation reduction as the trailing aircraft only;
      3. An average runway occupancy time of 50 seconds or less is documented;
      4. CTRDs are operational and used for quick glance references;
      5. Turnoff points are visible from the control tower.
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