EXCEPTION. GNSS-equipped aircraft /G, /L, /S, and /V on point−to−point routes, or transitioning between two point−to−point routes via an impromptu route.
Apply radar separation:
NOTE: This procedure must not be provided utilizing mosaic radar systems.
Separate aircraft by the following minima:
NOTE: Includes single sensor long range radar mode.
NOTE: Wake turbulence procedures specify increased separation minima required for certain classes of aircraft because of the possible effects of wake turbulence.
NOTE: In the event of an unexpected ISR on one or more aircraft, the ATCS working that aircraft must transition from 3-mile to 5-mile separation, or establish some other form of approved separation (visual or vertical) as soon as feasible. This action must be timely, but taken in a reasonable fashion, using the controller’s best judgment, as not to reduce safety or the integrity of the traffic situation. For example, if ISR appears when an aircraft is established on final with another aircraft on short final, it would be beneficial from a safety perspective to allow the trailing aircraft to continue the approach and land rather than terminate a stabilized approach.
NOTE: ADS-B surveillance must only be used when operating in FUSION.
NOTE: Mosaic/Multi-Sensor Mode combines radar input from 2 to 16 sites into a single picture utilizing a mosaic grid composed of radar sort boxes.
NOTE: ADS-B allows the expanded use of 3 NM separation in approved areas. It is not required for and does not affect the use of radar for 3 NM separation.
WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION
NOTE: Consider parallel runways less than 2,500 feet apart as a single runway because of the possible effects of wake turbulence.
WAKE TURBULENCE APPLICATION
Aircraft not laterally separated, may be vertically separated by one of the following methods:
NOTE: Two aircraft, both assigned courses and/or radar vectors with an angular difference of at least 15 degrees, is considered a correct application of this paragraph.
NOTE: Two aircraft, both assigned courses and/or radar vectors with an angular difference of at least 45 degrees, is considered a correct application of this paragraph.
NOTE: Apply en route separation rules when using multi-sensor mode.
Because of the distance allowed between formation aircraft and lead aircraft, additional separation is necessary to ensure the periphery of the formation is adequately separated from other aircraft, adjacent airspace, or obstructions. Provide supplemental separation for formation flights as follows:
NOTE: The additional separation provided in Paragraph 5-5-8, Additional Separation for Formation Flights, is not normally added to wake turbulence separation when a formation is following a heavier aircraft since none of the formation aircraft are likely to be closer to the heavier aircraft than the lead aircraft (to which the prescribed wake turbulence separation has been applied).
NOTE: When operating in FUSION, distances from the antenna listed in paragraph 5−5−9, a1 through a4, do not apply.
Separate a radar-controlled aircraft climbing or descending through the altitude of an aircraft that has been tracked to the edge of the scope/display by the following minima until nonradar separation has been established:
When using a radar target display with a previously specified beacon target displacement to separate a beacon target from a primary target, adjacent airspace, obstructions, or terrain, add a 1 mile correction factor to the applicable minima. The maximum allowable beacon target displacement which may be specified by the facility air traffic manager is 1/2 mile.