Section 4. Radio and Interphone Communications
2-4-1. RADIO COMMUNICATIONS
Use radio frequencies for the special purposes for which they are intended. A single frequency may be used for more than one function except as follows:
When combining positions in the tower, do not use ground control frequency for airborne communications.
NOTE: Due to the limited number of frequencies assigned to towers for the ground control function, it is very likely that airborne use of a ground control frequency could cause interference to other towers or interference to your aircraft from another tower. When combining these functions, it is recommended combining them on local control. The ATIS may be used to specify the desired frequency.
Monitor interphones and assigned radio frequencies continuously.
NOTE: Although all FAA facilities, including RAPCONs and RATCFs, are required to monitor all assigned frequencies continuously, USAF facilities may not monitor all unpublished discrete frequencies.
2-4-3. PILOT ACKNOWLEDGMENT/READ BACK
Ensure pilots acknowledge all Air Traffic Clearances and ATC Instructions. When a pilot reads back an Air Traffic Clearance or ATC Instruction:
- Ensure that items read back are correct.
- Ensure the read back of hold short instructions, whether a part of taxi instructions or a LAHSO clearance.
- Ensure pilots use call signs and/or registration numbers in any read back acknowledging an Air Traffic Clearance or ATC Instruction.
- 1. ATC Clearance/Instruction Read Back guidance for pilots in the AIM states:
- Although pilots should read back the “numbers,” unless otherwise required by procedure or controller request, pilots may acknowledge clearances, control instructions, or other information by using “Wilco,” “Roger,” “Affirmative,” or other words or remarks with their aircraft identification.
- Altitudes contained in charted procedures, such as departure procedures, instrument approaches, etc., need not be read back unless they are specifically stated by the controller.
- Initial read back of a taxi, departure or landing clearance should include the runway assignment, including left, right, center, etc. if applicable.
- 2. Until a pilot acknowledges a controller’s clearance or instruction, a controller cannot know if a pilot will comply with the clearance or remain as previously cleared.
- “Climbing to Flight Level three three zero, United Twelve” or “November Five Charlie Tango, roger, cleared to land runway four left.”
2-4-4. AUTHORIZED INTERRUPTIONS
As necessary, authorize a pilot to interrupt his/her communications guard.
NOTE: Some users have adopted procedures to ensure uninterrupted receiving capability with ATC when a pilot with only one operative communications radio must interrupt his/her communications guard because of a safety related problem requiring airborne communications with his/her company. In this event, pilots will request approval to abandon guard on the assigned ATC frequency for a mutually agreeable time period. Additionally, they will inform controllers of the NAVAID voice facility and the company frequency they will monitor.
2-4-5. AUTHORIZED TRANSMISSIONS
Transmit only those messages necessary for air traffic control or otherwise contributing to air safety.
- FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 3-2-2, Authorized Messages Not Directly Associated with Air Traffic Services.
2-4-6. FALSE OR DECEPTIVE COMMUNICATIONS
Take action to detect, prevent, and report false, deceptive, or phantom controller communications to an aircraft or controller. The following must be accomplished when false or deceptive communications occur:
- Correct false information.
- Broadcast an alert to aircraft operating on all frequencies within the area where deceptive or phantom transmissions have been received.
- “Attention all aircraft. False ATC instructions have been received in the area of Long Beach Airport. Exercise extreme caution on all frequencies and verify instructions.”
- Collect pertinent information regarding the incident.
- Notify the operations supervisor of the false, deceptive, or phantom transmission and report all relevant information pertaining to the incident.
2-4-7. AUTHORIZED RELAYS
- Relay operational information to aircraft or aircraft operators as necessary. Do not agree to handle such messages on a regular basis. Give the source of any such message you relay.
- Relay official FAA messages as required.
NOTE: The FAA Administrator and Deputy Administrator will sometimes use code phrases to identify themselves in air-to-ground communications as follows:
- Administrator: “SAFEAIR ONE.”
- Deputy Administrator: “SAFEAIR TWO.”
- “Miami Center, Jetstar One, this is SAFEAIR ONE, (message).”
- Relay operational information to military aircraft operating on, or planning to operate on IRs.
2-4-8. RADIO MESSAGE FORMAT
Use the following format for radio communications with an aircraft:
- Sector/position on initial radio contact:
- Identification of aircraft.
- Identification of ATC unit.
- Message (if any).
- The word “over” if required.
- Subsequent radio transmissions from the same sector/position must use the same format, except the identification of the ATC unit may be omitted.
You may omit aircraft identification after initial contact when conducting the final portion of a radar approach.
2-4-9. ABBREVIATED TRANSMISSIONS
Transmissions may be abbreviated as follows:
- Use the identification prefix and the last 3 digits or letters of the aircraft identification after communications have been established. Do not abbreviate similar sounding aircraft identifications or the identification of an air carrier or other civil aircraft having an FAA authorized call sign.
- Omit the facility identification after communication has been established.
- Transmit the message immediately after the callup (without waiting for the aircraft’s reply) when the message is short and receipt is generally assured.
- Omit the word “over” if the message obviously requires a reply.
2-4-10. INTERPHONE TRANSMISSION PRIORITIES
Give priority to interphone transmissions as follows:
- First priority. Emergency messages including essential information on aircraft accidents or suspected accidents. After an actual emergency has passed, give a lower priority to messages relating to that accident.
- Second priority. Clearances and control instructions.
- Third priority. Movement and control messages using the following order of preference when possible:
- Progress reports.
- Departure or arrival reports.
- Flight plans.
- Fourth priority. Movement messages on VFR aircraft.
2-4-11. PRIORITY INTERRUPTION
Use the words “emergency” or “control” for interrupting lower priority messages when you have an emergency or control message to transmit.
2-4-12. INTERPHONE MESSAGE FORMAT
Use the following format for interphone intra/interfacility communications:
- Both the caller and receiver identify their facility and/or position in a manner that ensures they will not be confused with another position.
NOTE: Other means of identifying a position, such as substituting departure or arrival gate/fix names for position identification, may be used. However, it must be operationally beneficial, and the procedure fully covered in a letter of agreement or a facility directive, as appropriate.
- Caller: “Albuquerque Center Sixty Three, Amarillo Departure.”
- Receiver: “Albuquerque Center.”
- Between two facilities which utilize numeric position identification, the caller must identify both facility and position.
- Caller: “Albuquerque Sixty Three, Fort Worth Eighty Two.”
- Caller states the type of coordination to be accomplished when advantageous. For example, handoff or APREQ.
- The caller states the message.
- The receiver states the response to the caller’s message followed by the receiver’s operating initials.
- The caller states his or her operating initials.
- 1. Caller: “Denver High, R Twenty-five.”
- Receiver: “Denver High.”
- Caller: “Request direct Denver for Northwest Three Twenty-eight.”
- Receiver: “Northwest Three Twenty-eight direct Denver approved. H.F.”
- Caller: “G.M.”
- 2. Receiver: “Denver High, Go ahead override.”
- Caller: “R Twenty-five, Request direct Denver for Northwest Three Twenty-eight.”
- Receiver: “Northwest Three Twenty-eight direct Denver approved. H.F.”
- Caller: “G.M.”
- 3. Caller: (“Bolos” is a departure gate in Houston ARTCC’s Sabine sector)-“Bolos, Houston local.”
- Receiver: “Bolos.”
- Caller: “Request Flight Level three five zero for American Twenty-five.”
- Receiver: “American Twenty-five Flight Level three five zero approved, A.C.”
- Caller: “G.M.”
- 4. Caller: “Sector Twelve, Ontario Approach, APREQ.”
- Receiver: “Sector Twelve.”
- Caller: “Cactus Five forty-two heading one three zero and climbing to one four thousand.”
- Receiver: “Cactus Five forty-two heading one three zero and climbing to one four thousand approved. B.N.”
- Caller: “A.M.”
- 5. Caller: “Zanesville, Columbus, seventy-three line, handoff.”
- Receiver: “Zanesville.”
- Caller: “Five miles east of Appleton VOR, United Three Sixty-six.”
- Receiver: “United Three Sixty-six, radar contact, A.Z.” Caller: “M.E.”
- Identify the interphone voice line on which the call is being made when two or more such lines are collocated at the receiving operating position.
- “Washington Center, Washington Approach on the Fifty Seven line.”
- “Chicago Center, O’Hare Tower handoff on the Departure West line.”
- . The provisions of sub paras a, b, c, e, f, g, and para 2-4-13, Interphone Message Termination, may be omitted provided:
- Abbreviated standard coordination procedures are contained in a facility directive describing the specific conditions and positions that may utilize an abbreviated interphone message format; and
- There will be no possibility of misunderstanding which positions are using the abbreviated procedures.
2-4-13. INTERPHONE MESSAGE TERMINATION
Terminate interphone messages with your operating initials.
2-4-14. WORDS AND PHRASES
- Use the words or phrases in radiotelephone and interphone communication as contained in the P/CG or, within areas where Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) is in use, the phraseology contained in the applicable CPDLC message set.
- The word super must be used as part of the identification in all communications with or about super aircraft.
- The word heavy must be used as part of the identification in all communications with or about heavy aircraft.
- . The use of the words super or heavy may be omitted except as follows:
- In communications with a terminal facility about super or heavy aircraft operations.
- In communications with or about super or heavy aircraft with regard to an airport where the en route center is providing approach control service.
- In communications with or about super or heavy aircraft when the separation from a following aircraft may become less than 5 miles by approved procedure.
- When issuing traffic advisories.
- “United Fifty-Eight Heavy.”
NOTE: Most airlines will use the word “super” or “heavy” following the company prefix and flight number when establishing communications or when changing frequencies within a terminal facility’s area.
- When in radio communications with “Air Force One” or “Air Force Two,” do not add the heavy designator to the call sign. State only the call sign “Air Force One/Two” regardless of the type aircraft.
2-4-15. EMPHASIS FOR CLARITY
Emphasize appropriate digits, letters, or similar sounding words to aid in distinguishing between similar sounding aircraft identifications. Additionally:
- Notify each pilot concerned when communicating with aircraft having similar sounding identifications.
- “United Thirty-one United, Miami Center, U.S. Air Thirty-one is also on this frequency, acknowledge.”
- “U.S. Air Thirty-one U.S. Air, Miami Center, United Thirty-one is also on this frequency, acknowledge.”
- Notify the operations supervisor-in-charge of any duplicate flight identification numbers or phonetically similar-sounding call signs when the aircraft are operating simultaneously within the same sector.
- FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 2-1-14, Aircraft Identification Problems.
NOTE: This is especially important when this occurs on a repetitive, rather than an isolated, basis.
2-4-16. ICAO PHONETICS
Use the ICAO pronunciation of numbers and individual letters. (See the ICAO radiotelephony alphabet and pronunciation in TBL 2-4-1.)
TBL 2-4-1 ICAO Phonetics
2-4-17. NUMBERS USAGE
State numbers as follows:
- Serial numbers. The separate digits.
||“One one four niner five.”
||“Two zero zero six niner.”
- Altitudes or flight levels:
- Altitudes. Pronounce each digit in the number of hundreds or thousands followed by the word “hundred” or “thousand” as appropriate.
||“One zero thousand.”
||“One one thousand.”
||“One seven thousand niner hundred.”
NOTE: Altitudes may be restated in group form for added clarity if the controller chooses.
||“Seventeen thousand niner hundred.”
- Flight levels. The words “flight level” followed by the separate digits of the flight level.
||“Flight level one eight zero.”
||“Flight level two seven five.”
- MDA/DH Altitudes. The separate digits of the MDA/DH altitude.
||“Minimum descent altitude, one three two zero.”
||“Decision height, four eight six.”
- General time information. The four separate digits of the hour and minute/s in terms of UTC.
||Time (12 hour)
||1:15 a.m. CST
||“Zero seven one five.”
||1:15 p.m. CST
||“One niner one five.”
- Upon request. The four separate digits of the hours and minute/s in terms of UTC followed by the local standard time equivalent; or the local time equivalent only. Local time may be based on the 24-hour clock system, and the word “local” or the time zone equivalent must be stated when other than UTC is referenced. The term “ZULU” may be used to denote UTC.
||Time (24 hour)
||Time (12 hour)
||“Two two three zero, one four three zero Pacific or Local.” or “Two-thirty P-M.”
- Time check. The word “time” followed by the four separate digits of the hour and minutes, and nearest quarter minute. Fractions of a quarter minute less than eight seconds are stated as the preceding quarter minute; fractions of a quarter minute of eight seconds or more are stated as succeeding quarter minute.
||“Time, one four one five.”
||“Time, one four one five and one-quarter.”
- Abbreviated time. The separate digits of the minutes only.
- Field elevation. The words “field elevation” followed by the separate digits of the elevation.
||“Field elevation, one seven.”
||“Field elevation, eight one seven.”
||“Field elevation, two eight one seven.”
- The number “0” as “zero” except where it is used in approved “group form” for authorized aircraft call signs, and in stating altitudes.
|“Field elevation one six zero.”
“Heading three zero zero.”
“One zero thousand five hundred.”
|“Western five thirty.”
“EMAIR One Ten.”
“Ten thousand five hundred.”
- Altimeter setting. The word “altimeter” followed by the separate digits of the altimeter setting.
||“Altimeter, three zero zero one.”
- Surface wind. The word “wind” followed by the separate digits of the indicated wind direction to the nearest 10-degree multiple, the word “at” and the separate digits of the indicated velocity in knots, to include any gusts.
- “Wind zero three zero at two five.”
- “Wind two seven zero at one five gusts three five.”
- Heading. The word “heading” followed by the three separate digits of the number of degrees, omitting the word “degrees.” Use heading 360 degrees to indicate a north heading.
||“Heading zero zero five.”
||“Heading zero three zero.”
||“Heading three six zero.”
- Radar beacon codes. The separate digits of the 4-digit code.
||“One zero zero zero.”
||“Two one zero zero.”
- Runways. The word “runway,” followed by the separate digits of the runway designation. For a parallel runway, state the word “left,” “right,” or “center” if the letter “L,” “R,” or “C” is included in the designation.
||“Runway Eight Left.”
||“Runway Two Seven Right.”
- The separate digits of the frequency, inserting the word “point” where the decimal point occurs.
- (a) Omit digits after the second digit to the right of the decimal point.
- (b) When the frequency is in the L/MF band, include the word “kilohertz.”
||“One two six point five five.”
||“Three six niner point zero.”
||“One two one point five.”
||“One three five point two seven.”
||“Three zero two kilohertz.”
- . Local channelization numbers may be used in lieu of frequencies for locally based aircraft when local procedures are established to ensure that local aircraft and ATC facilities use the same channelization.
||“Local channel one six.”
- Issue TACAN frequencies by stating the assigned two or three-digit channel number.
- The separate digits of the speed followed by “knots” except as required by para 5-7-2, Methods.
||“Two five zero knots.”
||“One niner zero knots.”
- The separate digits of the Mach number preceded by “Mach.”
||“Mach one point five.”
||“Mach point six four.”
||“Mach point seven.”
- Miles. The separate digits of the mileage followed by the word “mile.”
- “Three zero mile arc east of Nottingham.”
- “Traffic, one o’clock, two five miles, northbound, D-C Eight, flight level two seven zero.”
2-4-18. NUMBER CLARIFICATION
- If deemed necessary for clarity, and after stating numbers as specified in para 2-4-17, Numbers Usage, controllers may restate numbers using either group or single-digit form.
- “One Seven Thousand, Seventeen Thousand.” “Altimeter Two Niner Niner Two, Twenty Nine Ninety Two.”
- “One Two Six Point Five Five, One Twenty Six Point Fifty Five.”
2-4-19. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION
Identify facilities as follows:
- Airport traffic control towers. State the name of the facility followed by the word “tower.” Where military and civil airports are located in the same general area and have similar names, state the name of the military service followed by the name of the military facility and the word “tower.”
- “Columbus Tower.” “Barksdale Tower.”
- “Navy Jacksonville Tower.”
- Air route traffic control centers. State the name of the facility followed by the word “center.”
- Approach control facilities, including RAPCONs, RATCFs, and ARACs. State the name of the facility followed by the word “approach.” Where military and civil facilities are located in the same general area and have similar names, state the name of the military service followed by the name of the military facility and the word “approach.”
- “Denver Approach.”
- “Griffiss Approach.”
- “Navy Jacksonville Approach.”
- Functions within a terminal facility. State the name of the facility followed by the name of the function.
- “Boston Departure.”
- “La Guardia Clearance Delivery.” “O’Hare Ground.”
- When calling or replying on an interphone line which connects only two non-VSCS equipped facilities, you may omit the facility name.
- “Bradford High, Handoff.”
- FAA flight service stations. State the name of the station followed by the word “radio.”
- Radar facilities having ASR or PAR but not providing approach control service. State the name of the facility, followed by the letters “G-C-A.”
- “Corpus Christi G-C-A.”
- “Davison G-C-A.”
2-4-20. AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION
Use the full identification in reply to aircraft with similar sounding identifications. For other aircraft, the same identification may be used in reply that the pilot used in his/her initial callup except use the correct identification after communications have been established. Identify aircraft as follows:
DOT and FAA flights. The following alphanumeric identifiers and radio/interphone call signs are established for use in air/ground communications when the Secretary of Transportation, Deputy Secretary of Transportation, FAA Administrator or FAA Deputy Administrator have a requirement to identify themselves. (See TBL 2-4-2.)
- U.S. registry aircraft. State one of the following:
- Civil. State the prefix “November” when establishing initial communications with U.S. registered aircraft followed by the ICAO phonetic pronunciation of the numbers/letters of the aircraft registration. The controller may state the aircraft type, the model, the manufacturer’s name, followed by the ICAO phonetic pronunciation of the numbers/letters of the aircraft registration if used by the pilot on the initial or subsequent call.
- Air traffic controller’s initiated call:
“November One Two Three Four Golf.”
“November One Two Three Four.”
- Responding to pilot’s initial or subsequent call:
“Jet Commander One Two Three Four Papa.”
“Bonanza One Two Three Four Tango.”
“Sikorsky Six Three Eight Mike Foxtrot.”
NOTE: If aircraft identification becomes a problem when the procedures specified above are used, the call sign must be restated after the flight number of the aircraft involved.
- “American Five Twenty-One American.”
- “Commuter Six Eleven Commuter.”
- “General Motors Thirty-Seven General Motors.”
- FAA Order JO 7210.3, Para 2-1-14, Aircraft Identification Problems.
- Air carrier and other civil aircraft having FAA authorized call signs. State the call sign followed by the flight number in group form.
NOTE: “Group form” is the pronunciation of a series of numbers as the whole number, or pairs of numbers they represent rather than pronouncing each separate digit. The use of group form may, however, be negated by four-digit identifiers or the placement of zeros in the identifier.
- “American Fifty-Two.”
- “Delta One Hundred.”
- “Eastern Metro One Ten.”
- “General Motors Thirty Fifteen.”
- “United One Zero One.”
- “Delta Zero One Zero.”
- “TWA Ten Zero Four.”
NOTE: Air carrier and other civil aircraft having FAA authorized call signs may be pronounced using single digits if necessary for clarity.
- “United Five One Seven.”
- “United Five Seven Zero.”
- Air taxi and commercial operators not having FAA authorized call signs. State the prefix “TANGO” on initial contact, if used by the pilot, followed by the registration number. The prefix may be dropped in subsequent communications.
- “Tango Mooney Five Five Five Two Quebec.”
- “Tango November One Two Three Four.”
- Air carrier/taxi ambulance. State the prefix “MEDEVAC” if used by the pilot, followed by the call sign and flight number in group form.
- “MEDEVAC Delta Fifty-One.”
- Civilian air ambulance. State the word “MEDEVAC” followed by the numbers/letters of the registration number.
- “MEDEVAC Two Six Four Six.”
- U.S. military. State one of the following:
- (a) The service name, followed by the word “copter,” when appropriate, and the last 5 digits of the serial number.
- “Navy Five Six Seven One Three.”
- “Coast Guard Six One Three Two Seven.”
- “Air Guard One Three Five Eight Six.”
- “Army Copter Three Two One Seven Six.”
NOTE: If aircraft identification becomes a problem, the procedures reflected in FAA Order JO 7210.3, Facility Operation and Administration, para 2-1-14, Aircraft Identification Problems, will apply.
- (b) Special military operations. State one of the following followed by the last 5 digits of the serial number:
- (c) Air evacuation flights. “AIR EVAC,” “MARINE AIR EVAC,” or “NAVY AIR EVAC.”
- “Air Evac One Seven Six Five Two.”
- (d) Rescue flights. (Service name) “RESCUE.”
- “Air Force Rescue Six One Five Seven Niner.”
- (e) Air Mobility Command. “REACH.”
- “Reach Seven Eight Five Six Two.”
- (f) Special Air Mission. “SAM.”
- “Sam Niner One Five Six Two.”
- (g) USAF Contract Aircraft “LOGAIR.”
- “Logair Seven Five Eight Two Six.”
- (h) Military tactical and training:
- (1) U.S. Air Force, Air National Guard, Military District of Washington priority aircraft, and USAF civil disturbance aircraft. Pronounceable words of 3 to 6 letters followed by a 1 to 5 digit number.
- “Paul Two Zero.”
- “Pat One Five Seven.”
- “Gaydog Four.”
NOTE: When the “Z” suffix described in para 2-3-7, USAF/USN Undergraduate Pilots, is added to identify aircraft piloted by USAF undergraduate pilots, the call sign will be limited to a combination of six characters.
- (2) Navy or Marine fleet and training command aircraft. The service name and 2 letters, or a digit and a letter (use letter phonetic equivalents), followed by 2 or 3 digits.
- “Navy Golf Alfa Two One.”
- “Marine Four Charlie Two Three Six.”
- Presidential aircraft and Presidential family aircraft:
- (a) When the President is aboard a military aircraft, state the name of the military service, followed by the word “One.”
- “Air Force One.”
- “Army One.”
- “Marine One.”
- (b) When the President is aboard a civil aircraft, state the words “Executive One.”
- (c) When a member of the President’s family is aboard any aircraft, if the U.S. Secret Service or the White House Staff determines it is necessary, state the words “Executive One Foxtrot.”
- Vice Presidential aircraft:
- (a) When the Vice President is aboard a military aircraft, state the name of the military service, followed by the word “Two.”
- “Air Force Two.”
- “Army Two.”
- “Marine Two.”
- (b) When the Vice President is aboard a civil aircraft, state the words “Executive Two.”
- (c) When a member of the Vice President’s family is aboard any aircraft, if the U.S. Secret Service or the White House Staff determines it is necessary, state the words “Executive Two Foxtrot.”
TBL 2-4-2 DOT and FAA Alphanumeric Identifiers and Call Sign
Other Special Flights.
|Secretary of Transportation
|Deputy Secretary of Transportation
|Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration
|Deputy Administrator, Federal Aviation Administration
Use a pilot’s name in identification of an aircraft only in special or emergency situations.
Foreign registry. State one of the following:
- (a) Department of Energy flights. State the letters “R-A-C” (use phonetic alphabet equivalents) followed by the last 4 separate digits of the aircraft registration number.
- “Romeo Alfa Charlie One Six Five Three.”
- (b) Flight Inspection of navigational aids. State the call sign “FLIGHT CHECK” followed by the digits of the registration number.
- “Flight Check Three Niner Six Five Four.”
- (c) USAF aircraft engaged in aerial sampling missions. State the call sign “SAMP” followed by the last three digits of the serial number.
- “SAMP Three One Six.”
- Civil. State the aircraft type or the manufacturer’s name followed by the letters/numbers of the aircraft registration, or state the letters or digits of the aircraft registration or call sign.
- “Stationair F-L-R-B.”
NOTE: Letters may be spoken individually or phonetically.
- Air carrier. The abbreviated name of the operating company followed by the letters or digits of the registration or call sign.
- “Air France F-L-R-L-G.”
- The flight number in group form, or you may use separate digits if that is the format used by the pilot.
- “Scandinavian Sixty-eight.”
- “Scandinavian Six Eight.”
- Foreign Military. Except for military services identified in FAA Order JO 7340.2, Contractions, the name of the country and the military service followed by the separate digits or letters of the registration or call sign. For military services listed in FAA Order JO 7340.2, the approved telephony followed by the separate digits of the serial number.
- “Canforce Five Six Two Seven.”
- “Brazilian Air Force Five Three Two Seven Six.”
2-4-21. DESCRIPTION OF AIRCRAFT TYPES
Except for super and heavy aircraft, describe aircraft as follows when issuing traffic information.
General Aviation and Air Taxi:
- Military designator, with numbers spoken in group form, or
- Service and type, or
- Type only if no confusion or misidentification is likely.
- Air Carrier:
- Manufacturer’s model or type designator.
- Add the manufacturer’s name, company name or other identifying features when confusion or misidentification is likely.
- “American MD-Eighty. Seven Thirty-Seven.”
- “Boeing Seven Fifty-Seven.”
NOTE: Pilots of “interchange” aircraft are expected to inform the tower on the first radio contact the name of the operating company and trip number followed by the company name, as displayed on the aircraft, and the aircraft type.
- Manufacturer’s model or type designator.
- Manufacturer’s name, or add color when considered advantageous.
When issuing traffic information to aircraft following a super aircraft, specify the word super before the manufacturer’s name and model.
When issuing traffic information to aircraft following a heavy aircraft, specify the word heavy before the manufacturer’s name and model.
- “P A Twenty-Two.”
- “Cessna Four-Oh-One.”
- “Blue and white King Air.”
- “Sikorsky S-Seventy-Six.”
- “Super A-Three-Eighty” or “Super A-three-eighty-eight.”
- “Heavy C-Seventeen.”
- “Heavy Boeing Seven Forty-Seven.”
2-4-22. AIRSPACE CLASSES
A, B, C, D, E, and G airspace are pronounced in the ICAO phonetics for clarification. The term “Class” may be dropped when referring to airspace in pilot/controller communications.
- “Cessna 123 Mike Romeo cleared to enter Bravo airspace.”
- “Sikorsky 123 Tango Sierra cleared to enter New York Bravo airspace.”